France

Coordinates: 47°N 2°E / 47°N 2°E / 47; 2

French Republic

République française (French)[1]
Motto: "Liberté, égalité, fraternité"
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Anthem: "La Marseillaise"
EU-France (orthographic projection).svg
EU-France.svg
France in the World (+Antarctica claims).svg
Location of France (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

Capital
and largest city
Paris
48°51′N 2°21′E / 48.850°N 2.350°E / 48.850; 2.350
Official language
and national language
French[I]
Nationality (2018)
Religion
(2019[3])
Demonym(s)French
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential constitutional republic
• President
Emmanuel Macron
Jean Castex
Gérard Larcher
Richard Ferrand
LegislatureParliament
Senate
National Assembly
Establishment
• Reign of Clovis I as King of the Franks
500
August 843
22 September 1792
• Founded the EEC[III]
1 January 1958
4 October 1958
Area
• Total
640,679 km2 (247,368 sq mi)[4] (42nd)
• Water (%)
0.86 (as of 2015)[5]
551,695 km2 (213,011 sq mi)[V] (50th)
• Metropolitan France (Cadastre)
543,940.9 km2 (210,016.8 sq mi)[VI][6] (50th)
Population
• April 2021 estimate
Neutral increase 67,406,000[7] (20th)
• Density
104.7001/km2 (106th)
• Metropolitan France, estimate as of April 2021
Neutral increase 65,233,000[8] (23rd)
• Density
116/km2 (300.4/sq mi) (89th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.954 trillion[9] (10th)
• Per capita
Increase $45,454[9] (26th)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
Decrease $2.551 trillion[9] (7th)
• Per capita
Decrease $39,257[9] (20th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 28.5[10]
low
HDI (2019)Increase 0.901[11]
very high · 26th
Currency
Time zoneUTC+1 (Central European Time)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (Central European Summer Time[X])
Note: various other time zones are observed in overseas France.[IX]
Although France is in Western European Time/UTC (Z) zone, since 25 February 1940, upon WW2 German occupation, Central European Time/UTC+01:00 was enforced as standard time,[1] with a +0:50:39 offset (and +1:50:39 during DST) from Paris LMT (UTC+0:09:21).
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Mains electricity230 V–50 Hz
Driving sideright
Calling code+33[XI]
ISO 3166 codeFR
Internet TLD.fr[XII]
Source gives area of metropolitan France as 551,500 km2 (212,900 sq mi) and lists overseas regions separately, whose areas sum to 89,179 km2 (34,432 sq mi). Adding these give the total shown here for the entire French Republic. The CIA reports the total as 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi).

France (French: [fʁɑ̃s] Listen), officially the French Republic (French: République française),[1] is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. France borders Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland, Monaco and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south, as well as the Netherlands, Suriname and Brazil in the Americas. The country's eighteen integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.4 million (as of April 2021).[12] France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice. France, including its overseas territories, has the most time zones of any country, with a total of twelve.

During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls. The area was annexed by Rome in 51 BC, developing a distinct Gallo-Roman culture that laid the foundation of the French language. The Germanic Franks arrived in 476 and formed the Kingdom of Francia, which became the heartland of the Carolingian Empire. The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned the empire, with West Francia becoming the Kingdom of France in 987.

In the High Middle Ages, France was a highly decentralized feudal kingdom in which the authority of the king was barely felt. King Philip Augustus achieved remarkable success in the strengthening of royal power and the expansion of his realm, doubling its size and defeating his rivals. By the end of his reign, France had emerged as the most powerful state in Europe. In the mid-14th century, French monarchs were embroiled in a series of dynastic conflicts with their English counterparts, collectively known as the Hundred Years' War, from which they ultimately emerged victorious. Disputes with Spain and the Holy Roman Empire soon followed during the Renaissance. Meanwhile, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world.[13] The second half of the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots), which severely weakened the country. But France once again emerged as Europe's dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV following the Thirty Years' War.[14] Despite the wealth of the nation, an inadequate financial model and inequitable taxation system coupled with endless and costly wars meant that the kingdom was left in a precarious economic situation by the end of the 18th century. Especially costly were the Seven Years' War and American War of Independence. The French Revolution in 1789 saw the fall of the absolute monarchy that characterized the Ancien Régime and from its ashes, rose one of modern history's earliest republics, which drafted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. The declaration expresses the nation's ideals to this day.

Following the revolution, France reached its political and military zenith in the early 19th century under Napoleon Bonaparte, subjugating much of continental Europe and establishing the First French Empire. The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of European and world history. After the collapse of the empire and a relative decline, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870 in the midst of the Franco-Prussian War. France was one of the prominent participants of World War I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allied powers in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all other French colonies became independent in the 1960s, with most retaining close economic and military connections with France.

France retains its centuries-long status as a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world's fifth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving over 89 million foreign visitors in 2018.[15] France is a developed country with the world's seventh-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the ninth-largest by PPP. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world.[16] France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, and human development.[17][18] It remains a great power in global affairs,[19] being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council and an official nuclear-weapon state. France is a founding and leading member of the European Union and the Eurozone,[20] and a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.

  1. ^ a b "France". UNGEGN World Geographical Names. New York, NY: United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. Retrieved 27 November 2020.
  2. ^ https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/submitViewTableAction.do[dead link]
  3. ^ Special Eurobarometer 493, European Union: European Commission, September 2019, pages 229–230 Retrieved 17 January 2020. The question asked was "Do you consider yourself to be...?" With a card showing: Catholic, Orthodox Christian, Protestant, Other Christian, Jewish, Muslim – Shia, Muslim – Sunni, Other Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu, Atheist, Non believer/Agnostic and Other. Also space was given for Refusal (SPONTANEOUS) and Don't Know. On the other hand, Sikh and Hindu did not reach the 1% threshold.
  4. ^ "Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). Demographic Yearbook. United Nations Statistics Division. 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  5. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  6. ^ "France Métropolitaine". INSEE. 2011. Archived from the original on 28 August 2015. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. ^ "Demography – Population at the beginning of the month – France". Insee. 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  8. ^ "Demography – Population at the beginning of the month – Metropolitan France". insee.fr. 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  9. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". imf.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  10. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu/eurostat. Eurostat. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  11. ^ "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  12. ^ "Field Listing :: Area". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 1 November 2015. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  13. ^ Hargreaves, Alan G., ed. (2005). Memory, Empire, and Postcolonialism: Legacies of French Colonialism. Lexington Books. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-7391-0821-5.
  14. ^ R.R. Palmer; Joel Colton (1978). A History of the Modern World (5th ed.). p. 161.
  15. ^ "France posts new tourist record despite Yellow Vest unrest". France 24. 17 May 2019.
  16. ^ "Global Wealth Report" (PDF). Credit Suisse. October 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 November 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2014. "In euro and USD terms, the total wealth of French households is very sizeable. Although it has just 1% of the world's adults, France ranks fourth among nations in aggregate household wealth – behind China and just ahead of Germany. Europe as a whole accounts for 35% of the individuals in the global top 1%, but France itself contributes a quarter of the European contingent.
  17. ^ "World Health Organization Assesses the World's Health Systems". World Health Organization. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
  18. ^ "World Population Prospects – The 2006 Revision" (PDF). UN. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  19. ^ Jack S. Levy, War in the Modern Great Power System, 1495–1975, (2014) p. 29
  20. ^ Cite error: The named reference superficy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


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