Brazil

Coordinates: 10°S 52°W / 10°S 52°W / -10; -52

Federative Republic of Brazil
República Federativa do Brasil  (Portuguese)
Motto: Ordem e Progresso  (Portuguese)
"Order and Progress"
Anthem: Hino Nacional Brasileiro  (Portuguese)
"Brazilian National Anthem"
Flag anthem: Hino à Bandeira Nacional  (Portuguese)[1]
"National Flag Anthem"
National seal
Location of Brazil
CapitalBrasília
15°47′S 47°52′W / 15.783°S 47.867°W / -15.783; -47.867
Largest citySão Paulo
23°33′S 46°38′W / 23.550°S 46.633°W / -23.550; -46.633
Official language
and national language
Portuguese
Ethnic groups
Religion
(2020)[4][5]
Demonym(s)Brazilian
GovernmentFederal presidential republic
• President
Jair Bolsonaro
Hamilton Mourão
Arthur Lira
Rodrigo Pacheco
Luiz Fux
LegislatureNational Congress
Federal Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Independence 
• Declared
7 September 1822
29 August 1825
• Republic
15 November 1889
5 October 1988
Area
• Total
8,515,767 km2 (3,287,956 sq mi) (5th)
• Water (%)
0.65
Population
• 2022 estimate
212,688,125[6] (6th)
• Density
25/km2 (64.7/sq mi) (200th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $3.585 trillion[7] (9th)
• Per capita
Increase $16,763[7] (84th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.810 trillion[7] (10th)
• Per capita
Increase $8,464[7] (87th)
Gini (2019)Positive decrease 53.4[8]
high · 10th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.765[9]
high · 84th
CurrencyReal (R$) (BRL)
Time zoneUTC−2 to −5 (BRT)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+55
ISO 3166 codeBR
Internet TLD.br

Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil; Brazilian Portuguese: [bɾaˈziw]),[nt 4] officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil),[10] is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3,300,000 sq mi)[11] and with over 211 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the sixth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populous city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states and the Federal District. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas;[12][13] it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world;[14] as well as the most populous Roman Catholic-majority country.

Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi).[15] It borders all other countries and territories in South America except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area.[16] Its Amazon basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats.[15] This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest, as environmental degradation through processes like deforestation has direct impacts on global issues like climate change and biodiversity loss.

Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808 when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic.[17] Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[18]

Brazil is a regional and middle power,[19][20][21] and is also classified as an emerging power.[22][23][24][25] It is considered an advanced emerging economy,[26] having the twelfth largest GDP in the world by nominal, and eighth by PPP measures, the largest in Latin America.[27][28] As an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank[29] and a newly industrialized country,[30] Brazil has the largest share of global wealth in South America and it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years.[31] However, the country maintains noticeable amounts of corruption, crime and social inequality. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.

  1. ^ Exército Brasileiro. "Hino à Bandeira Nacional" (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
  2. ^ "Caracteristicas da População e dos Domicílios do Censo Demográfico 2010 – Cor ou raça" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
  3. ^ "South America :: BRAZIL". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  4. ^ Religious afflilation in Brazil (2020)
  5. ^ G1: 50% dos brasileiros são católicos, 31%, evangélicos e 10% não têm religião, diz Datafolha (in Portugese
  6. ^ Silva, Antonio Carlos Coutinho Gouvea da. "Projeções da População | Estatísticas | IBGE :: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística". ibge.gov.br (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2021". Imf. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  8. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate) – Brazil". World Bank. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  9. ^ "2019 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2019. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  10. ^ José María Bello (1966). A History of Modern Brazil: 1889–1964. Stanford University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-8047-0238-6.
  11. ^ "Área Territorial Brasileira" [Brazilian Territorial Area] (in Portuguese). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Archived from the original on 15 January 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2018. Para a superfície do Brasil foi obtido o valor de 8.515.759,090 km2, publicado no DOU nº 124 de 30/06/2017, conforme Resolução Nº 02, de 29 de junho de 2017.
  12. ^ Philander, S. George (2012). Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change, Second Edition. Vol. 1 (Second ed.). Los Angeles: Princeton University. p. 148. ISBN 978-1-4129-9261-9. OCLC 970592418.
  13. ^ Vallance, Monique M. (2012). "Preface and Observations on Contemporary Brazil". In Crocitti, John J. (ed.). Brazil Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic. Contributing editor Monique M. Vallance. ABC-CLIO. p. xxiii. ISBN 978-0-313-34672-9. OCLC 787850982.
  14. ^ "Os migrantes de hoje". BBC Brasil. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  15. ^ a b "Geography of Brazil". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 1 May 2018. Geography > Coastline. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  16. ^ "Brazil – Land". Permanent Missions. United Nations. Geography. Archived from the original on 23 October 2014.
  17. ^ "Brazilian Federal Constitution" (in Portuguese). Presidency of the Republic. 1988. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 3 June 2008. "Brazilian Federal Constitution". v-brazil.com. 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2008. Unofficial translate
  18. ^ "UNESCO World Heritage Centre — World Heritage List". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
  19. ^ M. Schaefer; J. Poffenbarger (2014). The Formation of the BRICS and its Implication for the United States: Emerging Together. Springer. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-137-38794-3.
  20. ^ Sean W. Burges (2016). Latin America and the Shifting Sands of Globalization. Routledge. pp. 114–15. ISBN 978-1-317-69658-2.
  21. ^ Gardini, Gian Luca (2016). "Brazil: What Rise of What Power?". Bulletin of Latin American Research. 35: 5–19. doi:10.1111/blar.12417.
  22. ^ FRIDE: The international arena and emerging powers: stabilising or destabilising forces? Archived 15 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Susanne Gratius, April 2008
  23. ^ Peter Collecott (29 October 2011). "Brazil's Quest for Superpower Status". The Diplomatic Courier. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
  24. ^ Clendenning, Alan (17 April 2008). "Booming Brazil could be world power soon". USA Today. The Associated Press. p. 2. Retrieved 12 December 2008.
  25. ^ Jorge Dominguez; Byung Kook Kim (2013). Between Compliance and Conflict: East Asia Latin America and the New Pax Americana. Center for International Affairs, Harvard University. pp. 98–99. ISBN 978-1-136-76983-2.
  26. ^ "FTSE Country Classification" (PDF). FTSE Group. September 2018. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  27. ^ "International Monetary Fund". imf.org.
  28. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Country Comparisons – GDP (purchasing power parity)". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
  29. ^ "Country and Lending Groups". World Bank. Archived from the original on 18 March 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011. Uppermiddle Income defined as a per capita income between $3,976 – $12,275
  30. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  31. ^ Cite error: The named reference Neilson102 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


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