Augustine of Hippo

Augustine of Hippo
Triunfo de San Agustín.jpg
The Triumph of Saint Augustine painted by Claudio Coello, c. 1664
BornAurelius Augustinus
13 November 354
Thagaste, Numidia Cirtensis, Western Roman Empire
(modern-day Souk Ahras, Algeria)
Died28 August 430 (aged 75)
Hippo Regius, Numidia Cirtensis, Western Roman Empire
(modern-day Annaba, Algeria)
Resting placePavia, Italy
Venerated inAll Christian denominations which venerate saints
Major shrineSan Pietro in Ciel d'Oro, Pavia, Italy
AttributesChild, dove, pen, shell, pierced heart, holding book with a small church, pectoral cross, crozier, miter
PatronageBrewers; printers; theologians; sore eyes; Bridgeport, Connecticut; Cagayan de Oro; San Agustin, Isabela; Mendez, Cavite; Tanza, Cavite

Philosophy career
Notable work
RegionWestern philosophy
Notable studentsPaul Orosius[19]
Main interests
Notable ideas
Ordination history
Priestly ordination
PlaceHippo Regius, Africa, Roman Empire
Episcopal consecration
Consecrated byMegalius

Augustine of Hippo (/ɔːˈɡʌstɪn/; Latin: Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis; 13 November 354 – 28 August 430[22]), also known as Saint Augustine, was a theologian, philosopher, and the bishop of Hippo Regius in Numidia, Roman North Africa. His writings influenced the development of Western philosophy and Western Christianity, and he is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers of the Latin Church in the Patristic Period. His many important works include The City of God, On Christian Doctrine, and Confessions.

According to his contemporary, Jerome, Augustine "established anew the ancient Faith".[a] In his youth he was drawn to the major Persian religion, Manichaeism, and later to Neoplatonism. After his conversion to Christianity and baptism in 386, Augustine developed his own approach to philosophy and theology, accommodating a variety of methods and perspectives.[23] Believing the grace of Christ was indispensable to human freedom, he helped formulate the doctrine of original sin and made significant contributions to the development of just war theory. When the Western Roman Empire began to disintegrate, Augustine imagined the Church as a spiritual City of God, distinct from the material Earthly City.[24] His thoughts profoundly influenced the medieval worldview. The segment of the Church that adhered to the concept of the Trinity as defined by the Council of Nicaea and the Council of Constantinople[25] closely identified with Augustine's On the Trinity.

Augustine is recognized as a saint in the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Anglican Communion. He is also a preeminent Catholic Doctor of the Church and the patron of the Augustinians. His memorial is celebrated on 28 August, the day of his death. Augustine is the patron saint of brewers, printers, theologians, and a number of cities and dioceses.[26] Many Protestants, especially Calvinists and Lutherans, consider him one of the theological fathers of the Protestant Reformation due to his teachings on salvation and divine grace.[27][28][29] Protestant Reformers generally, and Martin Luther in particular, held Augustine in preeminence among early Church Fathers. Luther was, from 1505 to 1521, a member of the Order of the Augustinian Eremites.

In the East, his teachings are more disputed and were notably attacked by John Romanides.[30] But other theologians and figures of the Eastern Orthodox Church have shown significant approbation of his writings, chiefly Georges Florovsky.[31] The most controversial doctrine associated with him, the filioque,[32] was rejected by the Orthodox Church.[33] Other disputed teachings include his views on original sin, the doctrine of grace, and predestination.[32] Nevertheless, though considered to be mistaken on some points, he is still considered a saint and has influenced some Eastern Church Fathers, most notably Gregory Palamas.[34] In the Orthodox Church his feast day is celebrated on 15 June.[32][35] The historian Diarmaid MacCulloch has written: "Augustine's impact on Western Christian thought can hardly be overstated; only his beloved example, Paul of Tarsus, has been more influential, and Westerners have generally seen Paul through Augustine's eyes."[36]

  1. ^ Siecienski 2010.
  2. ^ Augustine. "What Is Called Evil in the Universe Is But the Absence of Good". Enchridion. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  3. ^ Greenblatt 2017.
  4. ^ Ryan 1908.
  5. ^ St. Augustine, The Harmony of the Gospels, Book 1 chapter 2 paragraph 4. from
  6. ^ Esmeralda n.d.
  7. ^ Austin 2006.
  8. ^ Online, Catholic. "Jesus Christ Prayers - Prayers". Catholic Online.
  9. ^ "Deity". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
  10. ^ Huffington 2013.
  11. ^ Wilhelm 1910.
  12. ^ Jenson 2006.
  13. ^ Literal Interpretation of Genesis 1:19–20, Chapt. 19
  14. ^ The Literal Interpretation of Genesis 2:9
  15. ^ Demacopoulos & Papanikolaou 2008, p. 271.
  16. ^ "CHURCH FATHERS: On Merit and the Forgiveness of Sins, and the Baptism of Infants, Book I (Augustine)".
  17. ^ Quintilian 1939, X.1.126.
  18. ^ Schaff 1887, p. 146.
  19. ^ Nguyen & Prior 2014, p. 66.
  20. ^ Portalié 1907a.
  21. ^ "Augustine of Hippo, Bishop and Theologian". Society of Archbishop Justus. Archived from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  22. ^ Wells 2000, p. 54.
  23. ^ TeSelle 2002, p. 343.
  24. ^ Durant 1992.
  25. ^ Wilken 2003, p. 291.
  26. ^ Know Your Patron Saint.
  27. ^ Hägglund 2007, pp. 139–140.
  28. ^ González 1987.
  29. ^ St. Augustine of Hippo. "On Rebuke and Grace". In Philip Schaff (ed.). Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, First Series, Vol. 5. Translated by Peter Holmes and Robert Ernest Wallis, and revised by Benjamin B. Warfield (revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight) (1887 ed.). Buffalo, New York: Christian Literature Publishing Co.
  30. ^ "Some Underlying Positions of This Website". Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  31. ^ "Limits of Church". Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  32. ^ a b c Papademetriou, George C. "Saint Augustine in the Greek Orthodox Tradition". Archived 5 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ Siecienski 2010, pp. 53–67.
  34. ^ Kappes, Christian (2017). "Gregorios Palamas' Reception of Augustine's Doctrine of the Original Sin and Nicholas Kabasilas' Rejection of Aquinas' Maculism as the Background to Scholarios' Immaculism". In Denis Searby (ed.). Never the Twain Shall Meet?. De Gruyter. pp. 207–258. doi:10.1515/9783110561074-219. ISBN 9783110561074.
  35. ^ Archimandrite. "Book Review: The Place of Blessed Augustine in the Orthodox Church". Orthodox Tradition. II (3&4): 40–43. Archived from the original on 10 July 2007. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
  36. ^ MacCulloch 2010, p. 319.

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