United States

Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100

United States of America

Motto: 
Other traditional mottos:

USA orthographic.svg
US insular areas SVG.svg
CapitalWashington, D.C.
38°53′N 77°01′W / 38.883°N 77.017°W / 38.883; -77.017
Largest cityNew York City
40°43′N 74°00′W / 40.717°N 74.000°W / 40.717; -74.000
Official languagesNone at the federal level[a]
National languageEnglish
Ethnic groups
(2019)[8]
By race:
By ethnicity:
Religion
See Religion in the United States
Demonym(s)American[b][9]
GovernmentFederal presidential constitutional republic
• President
Joe Biden (D)
Kamala Harris (D)
Nancy Pelosi (D)
John Roberts
LegislatureCongress
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence 
July 4, 1776
March 1, 1781
September 3, 1783
June 21, 1788
September 25, 1789
August 21, 1959
May 5, 1992
Area
• Total area
3,796,742 sq mi (9,833,520 km2)[c][10] (3rd/4th)
• Water (%)
4.66 (as of 2015)[11]
• Total land area
3,531,905 sq mi (9,147,590 km2) P
Population
• 2020 census
331,449,281[d][12] (3rd)
• Density
87/sq mi (33.6/km2) (146th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
Decrease $20.807 trillion[13] (2nd)
• Per capita
Decrease $63,051[13] (7th)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
Decrease $20.807 trillion[13] (1st)
• Per capita
Decrease $63,051[13] (5th)
Gini (2020)Negative increase 48.5[14]
high
HDI (2019)Increase 0.926[15]
very high · 17th
CurrencyUnited States dollar ($) (USD)
Time zoneUTC−4 to −12, +10, +11
• Summer (DST)
UTC−4 to −10[e]
Date format
  • mm/dd/yyyy
  • yyyy-mm-dd
Mains electricity120 V–60 Hz
Driving sideright[f]
Calling code+1
ISO 3166 codeUS
Internet TLD
Generic top-level domain
[16] .com, .org, .net, .edu, .gov, .mil
ccTLD (generally not used in the U.S.)
.us, .pr, .as, .gu, .mp, .vi and, formerly, .um (removed by ICANN in 2008, but still recognized by the U.S. government as a ccTLD)

The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, 326 Indian reservations, and some minor possessions.[g] At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million square kilometers), it is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area.[c] With a population of more than 331 million people, it is the third most populous country in the world. The national capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City.

Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago, and European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Disputes over taxation and political representation with Great Britain led to the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), which established independence. In the late 18th century, the U.S. began vigorously expanding across North America, gradually acquiring new territories, frequently displacing Native Americans, and admitting new states; by 1848, the United States spanned the continent. Slavery was legal in the southern United States until the second half of the 19th century when the American Civil War led to its abolition. The Spanish–American War and World War I established the U.S. as a world power, a status confirmed by the outcome of World War II.

During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in various proxy wars but avoided direct military conflict. They also competed in the Space Race, culminating in the 1969 spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon. The Soviet Union's dissolution in 1991 ended the Cold War, leaving the United States as the world's sole superpower.

The United States is a federal republic and a representative democracy with three separate branches of government, including a bicameral legislature. It is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, NATO, and other international organizations. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Considered a melting pot of cultures and ethnicities, its population has been profoundly shaped by centuries of immigration. The U.S. ranks high in international measures of economic freedom, reduced levels of perceived corruption, quality of life, quality of higher education, and human rights. However, the country has received criticism in regard to inequality related to race, wealth and income, the use of capital punishment, high incarceration rates, and lack of universal health care.

The United States is a highly developed country, and continuously ranks high in measures of socioeconomic performance. It accounts for approximately a quarter of global GDP and is the world's largest economy by GDP at market exchange rates. By value, the United States is the world's largest importer and the second-largest exporter of goods. Although its population is only 4.2% of the world total, it holds 29.4% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share held by any country. Making up more than a third of global military spending, it is the foremost military power in the world and is a leading political, cultural, and scientific force internationally.[20]

  1. ^ 36 U.S.C. § 302
  2. ^ a b c d "The Great Seal of the United States" (PDF). U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs. 2003. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  3. ^ "An Act To make The Star-Spangled Banner the national anthem of the United States of America". H.R. 14, Act of March 3, 1931. 71st United States Congress.
  4. ^ Kidder & Oppenheim 2007, p. 91.
  5. ^ "uscode.house.gov". Public Law 105-225. uscode.house.gov. August 12, 1999. pp. 112 Stat. 1263. Retrieved September 10, 2017. Section 304. "The composition by John Philip Sousa entitled 'The Stars and Stripes Forever' is the national march."
  6. ^ Cobarrubias 1983, p. 195.
  7. ^ García 2011, p. 167.
  8. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: United States". United States Census. Retrieved January 21, 2020.
  9. ^ Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia and Fact-index: Ohio. 1963. p. 336.
  10. ^ Areas of the 50 states and the District of Columbia but not Puerto Rico nor other island territories per "State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates". Census.gov. August 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2020. reflect base feature updates made in the MAF/TIGER database through August, 2010.
  11. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved October 11, 2020.
  12. ^ "Census Bureau's 2020 Population Count". United States Census. Retrieved April 26, 2021. The 2020 census is as of April 1, 2020.
  13. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
  14. ^ "Income inequality in America is the highest it's been since Census Bureau started tracking it, data shows". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
  15. ^ "Human Development Report 2020: The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. December 15, 2020. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
  16. ^ OECD (2004), "Generic Top Level Domain Names: Market Development and Allocation Issues", OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 84, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/232630011251.
  17. ^ U.S. State Department, Common Core Document to U.N. Committee on Human Rights, December 30, 2011, Item 22, 27, 80. And U.S. General Accounting Office Report, U.S. Insular Areas: application of the U.S. Constitution, November 1997, pp. 1, 6, 39n. Both viewed April 6, 2016.
  18. ^ "China". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  19. ^ "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on December 19, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
  20. ^ Cohen, 2004: History and the Hyperpower
    BBC, April 2008: Country Profile: United States of America
    "Geographical trends of research output". Research Trends. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
    "The top 20 countries for scientific output". Open Access Week. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
    "Granted patents". European Patent Office. Retrieved March 16, 2014.


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