Toronto

Toronto
City of Toronto
Official logo of Toronto
Etymology: From the Mohawk word tkaronto, the name of a channel between Lakes Simcoe and Couchiching
Nicknames: 
Motto: 
Diversity Our Strength[1][2][a]
OpenStreetMap
Map
Toronto is located in Ontario
Toronto
Toronto
Location of Toronto in Ontario
Coordinates: 43°44′30″N 79°22′24″W / 43.74167°N 79.37333°W / 43.74167; -79.37333[4]
CountryCanada
ProvinceOntario
EstablishedAugust 27, 1793 (1793-08-27) (as York)
IncorporatedMarch 6, 1834 (1834-03-06) (as City of Toronto)
Amalgamated into divisionJanuary 20, 1953 (1953-01-20) (as Metropolitan Toronto)
AmalgamatedJanuary 1, 1998 (1998-01-01) (as current City of Toronto)
Districts
Government
 • TypeSingle-tier municipality with a mayor–council system
 • MayorOlivia Chow
 • Deputy MayorAusma Malik
 • BodyToronto City Council
Area
 • City630.20 km2 (243.32 sq mi)
 • Urban
1,792.99 km2 (692.28 sq mi)
 • Metro
5,905.71 km2 (2,280.21 sq mi)
Elevation
76.5 m (251.0 ft)
Population
 • City2,794,356 (1st)
 • Rank4th in North America
1st in Canada
 • Density4,427.8/km2 (11,468/sq mi)
 • Metro
6,202,225 (1st)
 • Region
9,765,188
DemonymTorontonian
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
Postal code span
Area codes416, 647, 437
GDP (Toronto CMA)CA$442.2 billion (2019)[9]
GDP per capita (Toronto CMA)CA$62,873 (2019)
Websitewww.toronto.ca Edit this at Wikidata

Toronto is the most populous city in Canada and the capital city of the Canadian province of Ontario. With a populaton of 2,794,356 in 2021,[10] it is the fourth-most populous city in North America. The city is the anchor of the Golden Horseshoe, an urban agglomeration of 9,765,188 people (as of 2021) surrounding the western end of Lake Ontario,[11] while the Greater Toronto Area proper had a 2021 population of 6,712,341.[10] Toronto is an international centre of business, finance, arts, sports and culture, and is one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world.[12][13][14]

Indigenous peoples have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, located on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, and urban forest, for more than 10,000 years.[15] After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown,[16] the British established the town of York in 1793 and later designated it as the capital of Upper Canada.[17] During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by American troops.[18] York was renamed and incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation.[19] The city proper has since expanded past its original limits through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2 (243.3 sq mi).

The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada.[20][21] About half of its residents were born outside of Canada and over 200 ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants.[22] While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city.[23] The mayor of Toronto is elected by direct popular vote to serve as the chief executive of the city. The Toronto City Council is a unicameral legislative body, comprising 25 councillors since the 2018 municipal election, representing geographical wards throughout the city.[24]

Toronto is a prominent centre for music,[25] theatre,[26] motion picture production,[27] and television production,[28] and is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets .[29] Its varied cultural institutions,[30] which include numerous museums and galleries, festivals and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, and sports activities,[31] attract over 43 million tourists each year.[32][33] Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings,[34] in particular the tallest free-standing structure on land outside of Asia, the CN Tower.[35]

The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks,[36] and the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations.[37] Its economy is highly diversified with strengths in technology, design, financial services, life sciences, education, arts, fashion, aerospace, environmental innovation, food services, and tourism.[38][39][40] Toronto is the third-largest tech hub in North America after Silicon Valley and New York City, and the fastest growing hub.[41]

  1. ^ "History of City Symbols". www.toronto.ca. City of Toronto. 2020. Archived from the original on August 12, 2021. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  2. ^ Harzig, Christiane; Juteau, Danielle; Schmitt, Irina (2006). The Social Construction of Diversity: Recasting the Master Narrative of Industrial Nations. Berghahn Books. p. 310. ISBN 978-1-57181-376-3. In reflecting and capturing this sense of the city, one of the first actions of the newly amalgamated Toronto City Council in 1998 was to adopt "Diversity Our Strength" as its official motto.
  3. ^ City of Toronto Government (August 18, 2017). "Equity, Diversity & Inclusion". Archived from the original on October 9, 2020. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  4. ^ "Toronto". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  5. ^ "Toronto (Code 3520005) Census Profile". 2016 census. Government of Canada - Statistics Canada. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
  6. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for population centres, 2011 and 2006 censuses". 2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. January 13, 2014. Archived from the original on October 26, 2014. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
  7. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for census metropolitan areas, 2011 and 2006 censuses". 2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. January 13, 2014. Archived from the original on June 22, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
  8. ^ "Census Profile, 2021 Census". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022. Archived from the original on February 10, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
  9. ^ "Statistics Canada. Table 36-10-0468-01 Gross domestic product (GDP) at basic prices, by census metropolitan area (CMA) (x 1,000,000)". Statistics Canada. May 17, 2023. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  10. ^ a b Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (February 9, 2022). "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on February 9, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
  11. ^ "Portrait of the Canadian Population in 2006: Subprovincial population dynamics, Greater Golden Horseshoe". Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population. Archived from the original on January 30, 2018.
  12. ^ Robert Vipond (April 24, 2017). Making a Global City: How One Toronto School Embraced Diversity. University of Toronto Press. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-4426-2443-6.
  13. ^ David P. Varady (February 2012). Desegregating the City: Ghettos, Enclaves, and Inequality. SUNY Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-7914-8328-2.
  14. ^ Ute Husken; Frank Neubert (November 7, 2011). Negotiating Rites. Oxford University Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-19-981230-1.
  15. ^ "First Peoples, 9000 BCE to 1600 CE – The History of Toronto: An 11,000-Year Journey – Virtual Exhibits | City of Toronto". toronto.ca. Archived from the original on April 16, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  16. ^ Johnson & Wilson 1989, p. 34.
  17. ^ "The early history of York & Upper Canada". Dalzielbarn.com. Archived from the original on July 14, 2015. Retrieved July 14, 2015.
  18. ^ "The Battle of York, 200 years ago, shaped Toronto and Canada: Editorial". thestar.com. April 21, 2013. Archived from the original on July 11, 2015. Retrieved July 14, 2015.
  19. ^ Mangione, Kendra (March 6, 2014). "Timeline: 180 years of Toronto history". Toronto. Archived from the original on May 8, 2015. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
  20. ^ Citizenship and Immigration Canada (September 2006). "Canada-Ontario-Toronto Memorandum of Understanding on Immigration and Settlement (electronic version)". Archived from the original on March 11, 2007. Retrieved March 1, 2007.
  21. ^ Flew, Janine; Humphries, Lynn; Press, Limelight; McPhee, Margaret (2004). The Children's Visual World Atlas. Sydney, Australia: Fog City Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-74089-317-6.
  22. ^ "Diversity – Toronto Facts – Your City". City of Toronto. Archived from the original on April 6, 2015. Retrieved April 2, 2015.
  23. ^ "Social Development, Finance & Administration" (PDF). toronto.ca. City of Toronto. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 18, 2016. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
  24. ^ "Council Members". toronto.ca. City of Toronto. Archived from the original on July 15, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  25. ^ "Music – Key Industry Sectors". City of Toronto. Archived from the original on July 28, 2015. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  26. ^ "Quality of Life – Arts and Culture". Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  27. ^ "Film & Television – Key Industry Sectors". City of Toronto. Archived from the original on July 28, 2015. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  28. ^ "Made here. Seen everywhere. – Film in Toronto". City of Toronto. Archived from the original on July 28, 2015. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  29. ^ "Ontario's Entertainment and Creative Cluster" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 28, 2016. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
  30. ^ "Culture, The Creative City". Toronto Press Room. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  31. ^ "Cultural Institutions in the Public Realm" (PDF). Eraarch.ca. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2016. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
  32. ^ "Tourism – City of Toronto". toronto.ca. City of Toronto. August 7, 2017. Archived from the original on July 13, 2019. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
  33. ^ Rider, David (January 24, 2018). "No end in sight for tourists' love affair with Toronto". thestar.com. Archived from the original on September 4, 2019. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
  34. ^ Melanson, Trevor (September 24, 2012). "What Toronto's skyline will look like in 2020". Canadian Business. Archived from the original on May 8, 2015. Retrieved May 10, 2015.
  35. ^ Plummer, Kevin (September 4, 2007). "The CN Tower is Dead. Long Live The CN Tower!". torontoist.com. Archived from the original on April 3, 2015. Retrieved May 10, 2015.
  36. ^ Duffy 2004, p. 154.
  37. ^ Dinnie 2011, p. 21.
  38. ^ "Industry Sector Support – City of Toronto". toronto.ca. July 14, 2017. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
  39. ^ ICF Consulting (February 2000). "Toronto Competes". toronto.ca. Archived from the original on January 27, 2007. Retrieved March 1, 2007.
  40. ^ "Business Toronto – Key Business Sectors". Investtoronto.ca. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  41. ^ Metz, Cade (March 21, 2022). "Toronto, the Quietly Booming Tech Town". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on September 14, 2023. Retrieved April 17, 2022.


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