Cannabis (drug)

Hampa Cannabis sativa L. (närbild).jpg
Close-up of flowering cannabis plant
Product nameCannabis
Source plant(s)Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, Cannabis ruderalis
Part(s) of plantFlower and fruit
Geographic originCentral Asia and Indian subcontinent[2]
Active ingredientsTetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabinol, tetrahydrocannabivarin
Main producersAfghanistan,[3] Canada,[4] China, Colombia,[5] India,[3] Jamaica,[3] Lebanon,[6] Mexico,[7] Morocco,[3] Netherlands, Pakistan, Paraguay,[7] Spain,[3] Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom,[8] United States[3]
Legal status

Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names,[a] is a psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant used primarily for medical and recreational purposes.[18][19][20] Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of cannabis, which is one of the 483 known compounds in the plant,[21] including at least 65 other cannabinoids,[22] including cannabidiol (CBD).[23] Cannabis can be used by smoking, vaporizing, within food, or as an extract.[24]

Cannabis has various mental and physical effects, which include euphoria, altered states of mind and sense of time, difficulty concentrating, impaired short-term memory and body movement,[24] relaxation,[25] and an increase in appetite.[26] Onset of effects is felt within minutes when smoked, and about 30 to 60 minutes when cooked and eaten.[24][27] The effects last for two to six hours, depending on the amount used.[27] At high doses, mental effects can include anxiety, delusions (including ideas of reference), hallucinations, panic, paranoia, and psychosis.[24][23] There is a strong relation between cannabis use and the risk of psychosis,[28][29] though the direction of causality is debated.[30] Physical effects include increased heart rate, difficulty breathing, nausea, and behavioral problems in children whose mothers used cannabis during pregnancy;[24] short-term side effects may also include dry mouth and red eyes.[31][32] Long-term adverse effects may include addiction, decreased mental ability in those who started regular use as adolescents, chronic coughing, and susceptibility to respiratory infections.[33]

Cannabis is mostly used recreationally or as a medicinal drug, although it may also be used for spiritual purposes. In 2013, between 128 and 232 million people used cannabis (2.7% to 4.9% of the global population between the ages of 15 and 65).[34] It is the most commonly used illegal drug in the world,[24][34] though it is legal in some jurisdictions, with the highest use among adults (as of 2018) in Zambia, the United States, Canada, and Nigeria.[35]

While cannabis plants have been grown since at least the 3rd millennium BCE,[36] evidence suggests that it was being smoked for psychoactive effects at least 2,500 years ago in the Pamir Mountains;[37] the earliest evidence found at a cemetery in what is today western China close to the tripoint with Tajikistan and Afghanistan.[38] Since the early 20th century, cannabis has been subject to legal restrictions. The possession, use, and cultivation of cannabis is illegal in most countries of the world.[39][40] In 2013, Uruguay became the first country to legalize recreational use of cannabis.[41] Other countries to do so are Canada, Georgia, and South Africa, plus 17 states, 2 territories, and the District of Columbia in the United States (though the drug remains federally illegal).[41][42] Medical use of cannabis, requiring the approval of a physician, has been legalized in a greater number of countries.[43]

  1. ^ "marijuana noun – Definition, pictures, pronunciation and usage notes | Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary at". Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  2. ^ ElSohly MA (2007). Marijuana and the Cannabinoids. Springer. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-59259-947-9.
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  4. ^ "Medical Use of Marijuana". Health Canada. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  5. ^ "New Colombia Resources Inc Subsidiary, Sannabis, Produces First Batch of Medical Marijuana Based Products in Colombia to Fill Back Orders". PR Newswire. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  6. ^ Moussaoui R (25 November 2013). "Lebanon cannabis trade thrives in shadow of Syrian war". AFP.
  7. ^ a b Garelli SL (25 November 2008). "Mexico, Paraguay top pot producers, U.N. report says". CNN International. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
  8. ^ Jackman, Robert (12 January 2019). "How Britain became the world's largest exporter of medical marijuana". The Spectator. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
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  10. ^ "Weed – Definition". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  11. ^ "Dope – Definition". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  12. ^ "Ganja – Definition". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  13. ^ Ruiz P, Strain EC (2011). Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-60547-277-5.
  14. ^ "Grass – Definition". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  15. ^ "Herb – Definition". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  16. ^ "Skunk – Definition". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  17. ^ "Mary Jane – Definition". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  18. ^ Vij (2012). Textbook Of Forensic Medicine And Toxicology: Principles And Practice. Elsevier India. p. 672. ISBN 978-81-312-1129-8.See also article on Marijuana as a word.
  19. ^ Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (6th ed.), Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-19-920687-2
  20. ^ Spanish Word Histories and Mysteries: English Words That Come From Spanish. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2007. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-547-35021-9.
  21. ^ Russo EB (2013). Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential. Routledge. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-136-61493-4.
  22. ^ Newton DE (2013). Marijuana: a reference handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 7. ISBN 9781610691499.
  23. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference D'Souza was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  24. ^ a b c d e f "DrugFacts: Marijuana". National Institute on Drug Abuse, US National Institutes of Health. 1 December 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  25. ^ Cite error: The named reference pmid18365950 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  26. ^ "Marijuana: Factsheets: Appetite". Retrieved 12 July 2013.
  27. ^ a b Riviello RJ (2010). Manual of forensic emergency medicine : a guide for clinicians. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. p. 41. ISBN 9780763744625.
  28. ^ Leweke FM, Mueller JK, Lange B, Rohleder C (April 2016). "Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids in Psychosis". Biological Psychiatry. 79 (7): 604–12. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.11.018. PMID 26852073. S2CID 24160677. Epidemiological data indicate a strong relationship between cannabis use and psychosis and schizophrenia beyond transient intoxication with an increased risk of any psychotic outcome in individuals who had ever used cannabis
  29. ^ Ortiz-Medina, MB; Perea, M; Torales, J; Ventriglio, A; Vitrani, G; Aguilar, L; Roncero, C (November 2018). "Cannabis consumption and psychosis or schizophrenia development". The International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 64 (7): 690–704. doi:10.1177/0020764018801690. PMID 30442059. S2CID 53563635. Cannabis use doubles the risk of developing psychosis in vulnerable people.
  30. ^ Ksir C, Hart CL (February 2016). "Cannabis and Psychosis: a Critical Overview of the Relationship". Current Psychiatry Reports. 18 (2): 12. doi:10.1007/s11920-015-0657-y. PMID 26781550. S2CID 36538598.
  31. ^ "Marijuana intoxication: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". Retrieved 12 July 2013.
  32. ^ Crippa JA, Zuardi AW, Martín-Santos R, Bhattacharyya S, Atakan Z, McGuire P, Fusar-Poli P (October 2009). "Cannabis and anxiety: a critical review of the evidence". Human Psychopharmacology. 24 (7): 515–23. doi:10.1002/hup.1048. PMID 19693792. S2CID 13544234.
  33. ^ "Commonly Abused Drugs Charts: Marijuana (Cannabis)". National Institute on Drug Abuse, US National Institutes of Health. 22 July 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
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  35. ^ "UNODC Statistics Online". Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  36. ^ Booth M (2003). Cannabis: A History. Transworld. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4090-8489-1.
  37. ^ Donahue, Michelle (12 June 2019). "Earliest evidence for cannabis smoking discovered in ancient tombs". National Geographic.
  38. ^
  39. ^ "Cannabis: Legal Status". Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  40. ^ UNODC. World Drug Report 2010. United Nations Publication. p. 198. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
  41. ^ a b Lemon, Jason (17 October 2018). "Where Is Weed Legal Around The World? You Can Now Officially Smoke Pot In Canada". Newsweek. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  42. ^ "Marijuana Overview". National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  43. ^ Williams, Sean (21 July 2018). "These 30 Countries Have Legalized Medical Marijuana in Some Capacity". The Motley Fool. Retrieved 7 May 2019.

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