The name Piscataway may be derived from the area's earliest European American settlers who were coming as transplants from New Hampshire near the Piscataqua River. This river is a landmark defining the coastal border between New Hampshire and Maine. This is an area whose name derives from peske (branch) and tegwe (tidal river), or alternatively from pisgeu (meaning "dark night") and awa ("place of") or from a Lenape language word meaning "great deer" The area was appropriated in 1666 by Quakers and Baptists who had left the Puritan colony in New Hampshire.
Piscataway Township was formed on December 18, 1666, and officially incorporated by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798, as part of the state's initial group of 104 townships. The community, the fifth-oldest municipality in New Jersey, has grown from Native American territory, through a colonial period and is one of the links in the earliest settlement of the Atlantic Ocean seacoast that ultimately led to the formation of the United States. Over the years, portions of Piscataway were taken to form Raritan Township (March 17, 1870, now Edison), Dunellen (October 28, 1887), Middlesex (April 9, 1913) and South Plainfield (March 10, 1926).
^Administration, Township of Piscataway. Accessed December 20, 2019. "The Office of the Mayor functions as the Administration Department of the Township. Serving with the Mayor is the Business Administrator who helps coordinate the delivery of public services to Township residents."
^ abCheslow, Jerry. "If You're Thinking of Living in: Piscataway", The New York Times, June 28, 1992. Accessed October 3, 2012. "What is now the township was settled in 1666 by Quakers and Baptists and fleeing the intolerant Puritan colony in New Hampshire. While Piscataway is a derivative of the Leni Lenape word for "great deer," the township is believed to have been named after the settlers' former home on the Piscataqua River."
^About Piscataway Township, Piscataway, New Jersey. Accessed June 24, 2019. "Piscataway was founded in 1666 and officially incorporated in 1798. As the fifth-oldest municipality in New Jersey, Piscataway has grown from Native American territory through a colonial period and is one of the links in the earliest settlement of the Atlantic seacoast that ultimately led to the formation of the United States."