University

The University of Bologna in Italy, founded in 1088, is often regarded as the world's oldest university in continuous operation

A university (Latin: universitas, 'a whole') is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities typically offer both undergraduate and postgraduate programs. In the United States, universities must offer graduate degrees; institutions offering only undergraduate degrees are colleges.

The word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which roughly means "community of teachers and scholars".[1]

The first universities were created in Europe by Christian monks. The University of Bologna (Università di Bologna), founded in 1088, is the first university in the sense of:

  • high degree-awarding institute;
  • independence from the ecclesiastic schools, although conducted by both clergy and non-clergy;
  • the word universitas was coined at its foundation;
  • secular and non-secular degrees: grammar, rhetoric, logic, theology, canon law, notarial law
    [2][3][4][5][6]

The medieval universities created in Italy evolved from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages.[7]

  1. ^ "Universities" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
  2. ^ "The University from the 12th to the 20th century - University of Bologna". www.unibo.it.
  3. ^ Top Universities Archived 17 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine World University Rankings Retrieved 6 January 2010
  4. ^ Paul L. Gaston (2010). The Challenge of Bologna. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-57922-366-3. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  5. ^ Hunt Janin: "The university in medieval life, 1179–1499", McFarland, 2008, ISBN 0-7864-3462-7, p. 55f.
  6. ^ de Ridder-Symoens, Hilde: A History of the University in Europe: Volume 1, Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp. 47–55
  7. ^ Haskins, Charles H. (1898). "The Life of Medieval Students as Illustrated by their Letters". The American Historical Review. 3 (2): 203–229. doi:10.2307/1832500. JSTOR 1832500.