Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

1952 edition of the DSM (DSM-1)

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM; latest edition: DSM-5, publ. 2013) is a publication by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) for the classification of mental disorders using a common language and standard criteria.

It is used - mainly in the USA - by clinicians, researchers, psychiatric drug regulation agencies, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, the legal system, and policymakers.

The DSM evolved from systems for collecting census and psychiatric hospital statistics, as well as from a United States Army manual. Revisions since its first publication in 1952 have incrementally added to the total number of mental disorders, while removing those no longer considered to be mental disorders.

Recent editions of the DSM have received praise for standardizing psychiatric diagnosis grounded in empirical evidence, as opposed to the theory-bound nosology used in DSM-III. However, it has also generated controversy and criticism, including ongoing questions concerning the reliability and validity of many diagnoses; the use of arbitrary dividing lines between mental illness and "normality"; possible cultural bias; and the medicalization of human distress.[1][2][3][4][5]

  1. ^ Donix, Markus (19 November 2013). "The New Crisis of Confidence in Psychiatric Diagnosis". Annals of Internal Medicine. 159 (10): 720. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-159-10-201311190-00020. PMID 24247685. S2CID 7172347.
  2. ^ Dalal, PK; Sivakumar, T (October 2009). "Moving towards ICD-11 and DSM-V: Concept and evolution of psychiatric classification". Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 51 (4): 310–9. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.58302. PMC 2802383. PMID 20048461.
  3. ^ Kendell, Robert; Jablensky, Assen (January 2003). "Distinguishing Between the Validity and Utility of Psychiatric Diagnoses". American Journal of Psychiatry. 160 (1): 4–12. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.1.4. PMID 12505793. S2CID 16151623.
  4. ^ Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Perez-Rodriguez, Maria M.; Basurte-Villamor, Ignacio; Fernandez Del Moral, Antonio L.; Jimenez-Arriero, Miguel A.; Gonzalez De Rivera, Jose L.; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Oquendo, Maria A. (March 2007). "Diagnostic stability of psychiatric disorders in clinical practice". British Journal of Psychiatry. 190 (3): 210–216. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.106.024026. PMID 17329740. S2CID 4888348.
  5. ^ Pincus, Harold Alan; Zarin, Deborah A.; First, Michael (1 December 1998). "'Clinical Significance' and DSM-IV". Archives of General Psychiatry. 55 (12): 1145, author reply 1147–8. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.55.12.1145. PMID 9862559.