Depression (mood)

A man diagnosed as suffering from melancholia with strong su Wellcome L0026693.jpg
Lithograph of a man diagnosed as suffering from melancholia with strong suicidal tendency (1892)
SpecialtyPsychiatry, Psychology
SymptomsLow mood, aversion to activity, loss of interest, loss of feeling pleasure
Risk factorsStigma of mental health disorder.[1]
Diagnostic methodPatient Health Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory
Differential diagnosisAnxiety, Bipolar Disorder, Borderline personality disorder
PreventionSocial connections, Physical activity
TreatmentPsychotherapy, Psychopharmacology

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity.[2] It can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, motivation, feelings, and sense of well-being.[3] The core symptom of depression is said to be anhedonia, which refers to loss of interest or a loss of feeling of pleasure in certain activities that usually bring joy to people.[4] Depressed mood is a symptom of some mood disorders such as major depressive disorder or dysthymia;[5] it is a normal temporary reaction to life events, such as the loss of a loved one; and it is also a symptom of some physical diseases and a side effect of some drugs and medical treatments. It may feature sadness, difficulty in thinking and concentration and a significant increase or decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping. People experiencing depression may have feelings of dejection, hopelessness and, sometimes, suicidal thoughts. It can either be short term or long term.

  1. ^ "Clinical risk of stigma and discrimination of mental illnesses: Need for objective assessment and quantification". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. ^ "NIMH » Depression Basics". 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  3. ^ de Zwart PL, Jeronimus BF, de Jonge P, et al. (October 2019). "Empirical evidence for definitions of episode, remission, recovery, relapse and recurrence in depression: a systematic review". Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences. 28 (5): 544–562. doi:10.1017/S2045796018000227. PMID 29769159.
  4. ^ Gilbert, Paul (2007). Psychotherapy and counselling for depression (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE. ISBN 9781849203494. OCLC 436076587.
  5. ^ Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Association. 2013.