Montreal

Montreal

Montréal  (French)
Ville de Montréal
Nickname(s): 
Motto(s): 
Concordia Salus ("well-being through harmony")
Location within urban agglomeration
Location within urban agglomeration
Montreal is located in Quebec
Montreal
Montreal
Location within Quebec
Coordinates: 45°30′32″N 73°33′15″W / 45.50889°N 73.55417°W / 45.50889; -73.55417Coordinates: 45°30′32″N 73°33′15″W / 45.50889°N 73.55417°W / 45.50889; -73.55417
CountryCanada
ProvinceQuebec
RegionMontreal
UAUrban agglomeration of Montreal
FoundedMay 17, 1642
Incorporated1832
ConstitutedJanuary 1, 2002
Boroughs
Government
 • TypeMontreal City Council
 • MayorValérie Plante
 • Federal riding
 • Prov. riding
 • MPs
Area
 • City431.50 km2 (166.60 sq mi)
 • Land365.13 km2 (140.98 sq mi)
 • Urban1,293.99 km2 (499.61 sq mi)
 • Metro4,604.26 km2 (1,777.71 sq mi)
Highest elevation
233 m (764 ft)
Lowest elevation
6 m (20 ft)
Population
 (2016)[10]
 • City1,704,693
 • Density3,889/km2 (10,070/sq mi)
 • Urban3,519,595
 • Urban density2,719/km2 (7,040/sq mi)
 • Metro4,247,000 (2nd)
 • Metro density890/km2 (2,300/sq mi)
 • Pop 2011–2016
Increase 2.9%
 • Dwellings
939,112
Demonym(s)Montrealer
Montréalais(e)[12]
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
Postal code(s)
H (except H7 for Laval)
Area code(s)514 and 438 and 263
PoliceService de police de la Ville de Montréal
GDP (Montreal CMA)CA$200.9 billion (2016)[13]
GDP per capita (Montreal CMA)CA$49,024 (2016)
Websitemontreal.ca Edit this at Wikidata

Montreal (/ˌmʌntriˈɔːl/ (About this soundlisten) MUN-tree-AWL; officially Montréal, French: [mɔ̃ʁeal] (About this soundlisten), is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary",[14] it is named after Mount Royal,[15] the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which got its name from the same origin as the city,[16][17] and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard. The city is situated 196 km (122 mi) east of the national capital Ottawa, and 258 km (160 mi) south-west of the provincial capital, Quebec City.

In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694,[10] with a population of 1,942,247 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal.[10] The broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,247.[11] French is the city's official language[18][19] and in 2016 was the home language of 61.2% of the population, while 26.4% spoke non-official languages at home and English was spoken by 23.1% of the inhabitants (multi-language responses were included in these figures).[10] In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 71.2% of the population spoke at least French at home, compared to 19.0% who spoke English.[11] Still in 2016, 87.4% of the population of the city of Montreal considered themselves fluent in French while 91.4% could speak it in the metropolitan area.[20][21] Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with 57.4% of the population able to speak both English and French.[10] Montreal is the second-largest primarily French-speaking city in the developed world, after Paris.[22][23][24][25]

Historically the commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s.[26] It remains an important centre of commerce, aerospace, transport, finance, pharmaceuticals, technology, design, education, art, culture, tourism, food, fashion, video game development, film, and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America,[27] serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, and was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006.[28][29] In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th-most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking,[30] and the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings.[31]

Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.[32][33] It is the only Canadian city to have held the quadrennial Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city.[34] The city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One since 1978,[35] as well as the Montreal International Jazz Festival,[36] the largest jazz festival in the world,[37] the Just for Laughs festival[38] and Les Francos de Montréal, which is the largest event devoted exclusively to French-language music anywhere in the world.[39] It is also home to ice hockey team Montreal Canadiens, the franchise with the most Stanley Cup wins.

  1. ^ "Quebec's Metropolis 1960–1992". Montreal Archives. Archived from the original on January 5, 2013. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
  2. ^ Gagné, Gilles (May 31, 2012). "La Gaspésie s'attable dans la métropole". Le Soleil (in French). Quebec City. Archived from the original on June 5, 2013. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
  3. ^ Leclerc, Jean-François (2002). "Montréal, la ville aux cent clochers : regards des Montréalais sur leurs lieux de culte". Éditions Fides (in French). Quebec City.
  4. ^ "Lonely Planet Montreal Guide – Modern History". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on January 5, 2007. Retrieved December 12, 2006.
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference mamrot was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census; Montreal, Ville [Census subdivision], Quebec and Canada [Country]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
  7. ^ a b "Census Profile, 2016 Census". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference cp2011-PC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ Cite error: The named reference cp2011-CA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ a b c d e Cite error: The named reference cp2016-CD was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  11. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference cp2016-CA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ Poirier, Jean. "Island of Montréal". Natural Resources Canada. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014. Retrieved July 16, 2014.
  13. ^ "Table 36-10-0468-01 Gross domestic product (GDP) at basic prices, by census metropolitan area (CMA) (x 1,000,000)". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
  14. ^ "Old Montréal / Centuries of History". April 2000. Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
  15. ^ "Mount Royal Park – Montreal's Mount Royal Park or Parc du Mont-Royal". montreal.about.com. Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved November 16, 2010.
  16. ^ "Island of Montreal". Natural Resources Canada. Archived from the original on May 31, 2008. Retrieved February 7, 2008.
  17. ^ Poirier, Jean (1979). "Île de Montréal". 5 (1). Quebec: Canoma: 6–8. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  18. ^ Chapter 1, article 1, "Charte de la Ville de Montréal" (in French). 2008. Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved May 13, 2012.
  19. ^ Chapter 1, article 1, "Charter of Ville de Montréal". 2008. Archived from the original on December 26, 2013. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ [2]
  22. ^ Discovering Canada Archived November 5, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (official Canadian citizenship test study guide)
  23. ^ "Living in Canada: Montreal, Quebec". Abrams & Krochak – Canadian Immigration Lawyers. Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
  24. ^ Roussopoulos, Dimitrios; Benello, C. George, eds. (2005). Participatory Democracy: Prospects for Democratizing Democracy. Montreal; New York: Black Rose Books. p. 292. ISBN 978-1-55164-224-6. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved June 5, 2009. Quote: Montreal "is second only to Paris as the largest primarily French-speaking city in the world".
  25. ^ Kinshasa and Abidjan are sometimes said to rank ahead of Montreal as francophone cities, since they have larger populations and are in countries with French as the sole official language. However, French is uncommon as a mother tongue there. According to Ethnologue, there were 17,500 mother-tongue speakers of French in the Ivory Coast as of 1988. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fra Archived October 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Approximately 10% of the population of Congo-Kinshasa knows French to some extent. http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/AXL/afrique/czaire.htm Archived November 27, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ "City of Toronto, History Resources". City of Toronto. October 23, 2000. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved April 13, 2010.
  27. ^ "Why Choose Montréal – Montreal International". Montreal International. Archived from the original on April 2, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
  28. ^ "Montreal, Canada appointed a UNESCO City of Design" (PDF). UNESCO. June 7, 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 1, 2018. Retrieved September 16, 2009.
  29. ^ Wingrove, Josh (June 9, 2008). "Vancouver and Montreal among 25 most livable cities". Globe and Mail. Canada. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  30. ^ "Montreal Ranked Top Most Livable City". Herald Sun. Archived from the original on November 16, 2017. Retrieved November 15, 2017. The EIU's annual report, which ranks 140 major cities around the world based on their liveability, found Melbourne, Australia to be the most liveable city in the world. [...] Montreal doesn't make the list until number 12
  31. ^ "QS Best Student Cities 2017". Top Universities. Archived from the original on February 18, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  32. ^ "Montreal 1976". Olympic.org. Archived from the original on January 4, 2016. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
  33. ^ www.ixmedia.com. "Articles | Encyclopédie du patrimoine culturel de l'Amérique française – histoire, culture, religion, héritage". www.ameriquefrancaise.org (in French). Archived from the original on March 31, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
  34. ^ "The World According to GaWC". 2018. Archived from the original on May 3, 2017. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  35. ^ "Circuit Gilles Villeneuve". Circuit Gilles Villeneuve Official Website. Archived from the original on December 24, 2015. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
  36. ^ "About – Festival International de Jazz de Montréal". www.montrealjazzfest.com. Archived from the original on April 2, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
  37. ^ [3]
  38. ^ "Just For Laughs Festival". www.tourisme-montreal.org. Archived from the original on April 6, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
  39. ^ [4]