A LaserDisc player is a device designed to play video (analog) and audio (analog or digital) stored on LaserDisc. LaserDisc was the first optical disc format marketed to consumers; it was introduced by MCA DiscoVision in 1978. From 1978 until 1984, all LaserDisc player models read discs by using a helium–neon laser. In 1984, Pioneer Corporation introduced the first consumer player with a solid-state laser diode. This model, the Pioneer LD-700, was also the first LaserDisc player with a front-loading disc bay instead of a top-loading one. Pioneer became the market leader in LaserDisc technology. In the 1990s, Pioneer and others produced a small number of a high-definition video player models, which employed multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding (MUSE) technology. In 1996, Pioneer distributed their first DVD player in Japan, a combination Laserdisc/DVD player, model DVL-9. Pioneer announced the end of LaserDisc player production in January 2009. The last models Pioneer produced were the DVL-919 (an LD/DVD player), CLD-R5 (an LD/CD player), DVK-900 (an LD/DVD karaoke system), and DVL-K88 (an LD/DVD karaoke player).