A bicycle lock is a security device used to deter bicycle theft, either by simply locking one of the wheels or by fastening the bicycle to a fixed object, e.g., a bike rack. Quick-release levers, as used on some bicycle wheels and seatpost fasteners, are a security vulnerability, because they allow the wheels and saddle to be easily removed. Unless such easily removable components are secured while the bicycle is unattended, they are vulnerable to theft. Sensible locking strategies address this by locking these components in addition to the frame, or by taking the vulnerable components, such as quick-release front wheels, away from the bicycle. Locking devices vary in size and security, the most secure tending to be the largest, heaviest and least portable. Thus, like other security equipment, bicycle locks must balance the competing interests of security, portability, and cost. Some are made of particularly expensive materials chosen for their acceptable strength and low density. An alternate defense is the provision of bicycle lockers or a bike cage in which the whole bicycle is locked, but these are uncommon in some countries. A bike locker is not a bicycle lock. Test standards that rate the effective security of bicycle locks are provided by Thatcham and Sold Secure in the United Kingdom, ART in the Netherlands, SSF in Sweden, and VDS in Germany. Tests carried out by the Cyclists' Touring Club showed that all of the locks under test could be broken in less than 42 seconds using either bolt cutters for a cable/chain or a bottle jack for D-locks.