Waste management

Waste management in Kathmandu, Nepal
Waste management in Stockholm, Sweden
Waste pickers of e-waste, Agbogbloshie
Containers for selective waste collection at the Gdańsk University of Technology
A recycling and waste-to-energy plant for waste that is not exported

Waste management (or waste disposal) includes the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.[1] This includes the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste, together with monitoring and regulation of the waste management process and waste-related laws, technologies, economic mechanisms.

Waste can be solid, liquid, or gaseous and each type has different methods of disposal and management. Waste management deals with all types of waste, including industrial, biological and household. In some cases, waste can pose a threat to human health.[2] Health issues are associated throughout the entire process of waste management. Health issues can also arise indirectly or directly. Directly, through the handling of said waste, and indirectly through the consumption of water, soil and food. Waste is produced by [3] human activity, for example, the extraction and processing of raw materials.[4] Waste management is intended to reduce adverse effects of waste on human health, the environment, planetary resources and aesthetics.

Waste management practices are not uniform among countries (developed and developing nations); regions (urban and rural areas), and residential and industrial sectors can all take different approaches.[5]

Proper management of waste is important for building sustainable and liveable cities, but it remains a challenge for many developing countries and cities. A report found that effective waste management is relatively expensive, usually comprising 20%–50% of municipal budgets. Operating this essential municipal service requires integrated systems that are efficient, sustainable, and socially supported.[6] A large portion of waste management practices deal with municipal solid waste (MSW) which is the bulk of the waste that is created by household, industrial, and commercial activity.[7] Measures of waste management include measures for integrated techno-economic mechanisms[8] of a circular economy, effective disposal facilities, export and import control[9][10] and optimal sustainable design of products that are produced.

In the first systematic review of the scientific evidence around global waste, its management and its impact on human health and life, authors concluded that about a fourth of all the municipal solid terrestrial waste is not collected and an additional fourth is mismanaged after collection, often being burned in open and uncontrolled fires – or close to one billion tons per year when combined. They also found that broad priority areas each lack a "high-quality research base", partly due to the absence of "substantial research funding", which motivated scientists often require.[11][12]

  1. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division – Environment Statistics". unstats.un.org. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  2. ^ "Editorial Board/Aims & Scope". Waste Management. 34 (3): IFC. March 2014. doi:10.1016/S0956-053X(14)00026-9.
  3. ^ Giusti, L. (1 August 2009). "A review of waste management practices and their impact on human health". Waste Management. 29 (8): 2227–2239. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2009.03.028. ISSN 0956-053X. PMID 19401266.
  4. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - Environment Statistics". unstats.un.org. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  5. ^ Davidson, Gary (June 2011). "Waste Management Practices: Literature Review" (PDF). Dalhousie University – Office of Sustainability. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  6. ^ "Solid Waste Management". World Bank. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  7. ^ "Glossary of environmental and waste management terms". Handbook of Solid Waste Management and Waste Minimization Technologies. Butterworth-Heinemann. 2003. pp. 337–465. doi:10.1016/B978-075067507-9/50010-3. ISBN 9780750675079.
  8. ^ Gollakota, Anjani R. K.; Gautam, Sneha; Shu, Chi-Min (1 May 2020). "Inconsistencies of e-waste management in developing nations – Facts and plausible solutions". Journal of Environmental Management. 261: 110234. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110234. ISSN 0301-4797. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
  9. ^ Elegba, S. B. (2006). "Import/export control of radioactive sources in Nigeria". Safety and security of radioactive sources: Towards a global system for the continuous control of sources throughout their life cycle. Proceedings of an international conference. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
  10. ^ "E –Waste Management through Regulations" (PDF). International Journal of Engineering Inventions.
  11. ^ "Health crisis: Up to a billion tons of waste potentially burned in the open every year". phys.org. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
  12. ^ Cook, E.; Velis, C. A. (6 January 2021). "Global Review on Safer End of Engineered Life". Global Review on Safer End of Engineered Life. Retrieved 13 February 2021.