Free and Sovereign State of Sonora
Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora (Spanish)
State of Sonora within Mexico
State of Sonora within Mexico
Coordinates: 29°38′46″N 110°52′08″W / 29.64611°N 110.86889°W / 29.64611; -110.86889Coordinates: 29°38′46″N 110°52′08″W / 29.64611°N 110.86889°W / 29.64611; -110.86889
AdmissionJanuary 10, 1824[2]
 • BodyCongress of Sonora
 • GovernorClaudia Pavlovich Arellano (PRI)
 • Senators[3]Arturo Bours Griffith Morena
Lilly Téllez PAN
Sylvana Beltrones Sánchez PRI logo (Mexico).svg
 • Deputies[4]
 • Total179,355 km2 (69,249 sq mi)
 Ranked 2nd
Highest elevation2,620 m (8,600 ft)
 • Total2,944,840 [1]
 • Rank18th
 • Density rank27th
Time zoneUTC−7 (MST[8])
 • Summer (DST)UTC-7 (No DST)
Postal code
Area code
ISO 3166 codeMX-SON
HDIIncrease 0.806 Very High Ranked 4th out of 32
GDPUS$ 16,416,142.57 th[b]
^ a. Joined to the federation under the name of Estado de Occidente (Western State) also recognized as Sonora y Sinaloa.
^ b. The state's GDP was $210,126,625 thousand of pesos in 2008,[9] amount corresponding to $16,416,142.57 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010).[10]

Sonora (Spanish pronunciation: [soˈnoɾa] (About this soundlisten)), officially Free and Sovereign State of Sonora (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora), is one of 32 states which comprise the Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border primarily with the state of Arizona with a small length with New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.

Sonora's natural geography is divided into three parts: the Sierra Madre Occidental in the east of the state; plains and rolling hills in the center; and the coast on the Gulf of California. It is primarily arid or semiarid deserts and grasslands, with only the highest elevations having sufficient rainfall to support other types of vegetation.

Sonora is home to eight indigenous peoples, including the Mayo, the O’odham, the Yaqui, and Seri. The state has been economically important for its agriculture, livestock (especially beef), and mining since the colonial period, and for its status as a border state since the Mexican–American War. With the Gadsden Purchase, Sonora lost more than a quarter of its territory.[11] From the 20th century to the present, industry, tourism, and agribusiness have dominated the economy, attracting migration from other parts of Mexico.

  1. ^
  2. ^ "Las Diputaciones Provinciales" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 15.
  3. ^ "Senadores por Sonora LXI Legislatura". Senado de la República. Retrieved October 21, 2010.
  4. ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Sonora". Cámara de Diputados. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
  5. ^ "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  6. ^ "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
  7. ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Retrieved December 9, 2015.
  8. ^ Miriam de Regil. Inicia el domingo el Horario de Verano Archived 2011-05-11 at the Wayback Machine. El Financiero, Viernes, 31 de marzo de 2006.
  9. ^ "Mexico en Cifras". INEGI. Archived from the original on April 20, 2011. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
  10. ^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano". Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  11. ^ "Sonora, Navojoa" (PDF). Modulo de Planeacion Estrategica. Retrieved April 7, 2010.