Mexico City

Mexico City

Ciudad de México  (Spanish)
From top and left: Angel of Independence, Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, Paseo de la Reforma, Torre Latinoamericana, National Palace, Parque La Mexicana in Santa Fe, Monumento a la Revolución, Chapultepec Castle, Palacio de Bellas Artes and Paseo de la Reforma
Coat of arms of Mexico City
Coat of arms
Official logo of Mexico City
Government logo
La Ciudad de los Palacios
(The City of Palaces)
Mexico City within Mexico
Mexico City within Mexico
Mexico City is located in Mexico
Mexico City
Mexico City
Location within Mexico
Mexico City is located in North America
Mexico City
Mexico City
Mexico City (North America)
Coordinates: 19°26′N 99°8′W / 19.433°N 99.133°W / 19.433; -99.133Coordinates: 19°26′N 99°8′W / 19.433°N 99.133°W / 19.433; -99.133
  • 13 March 1325 (1325-03-13):
  • 13 August 1521 (1521-08-13):
    Ciudad de México[2]
  • 18 November 1824 (1824-11-18):
    Distrito Federal[3]
  • 29 January 2016 (2016-01-29):
    Ciudad de México[4]
Founded by
 • MayorMORENA Claudia Sheinbaum
 • Senators[5]
 • Deputies[6]
 • Total1,485 km2 (573 sq mi)
 Ranked 32nd
2,240 m (7,350 ft)
Highest elevation3,930 m (12,890 ft)
 • Total9,209,944
 • Rank2nd
 • Density6,200/km2 (16,000/sq mi)
 • Density rank1st
 • Metro area
  • Capitalino (a)
  • Mexiqueño (a) (archaic)
  • Chilango (a) (colloquial)
Time zoneUTC−06:00 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−05:00 (CDT)
Postal code
Area code55/56
ISO 3166 codeMX-CMX
Patron SaintPhilip of Jesus (Spanish: San Felipe de Jesús)
HDIIncrease0.897 Very High[10]
GDP (Nominal)$266 billion[11] (in Spanish)
Official nameHistoric center of Mexico City, Xochimilco and Central University City Campus of the UNAM
Criteriai, ii, iii, iv, v
Designated1987, 2007 (11th, 31st sessions)
Reference no.412, 1250
State PartyMexico
RegionLatin America and the Caribbean
^ b. Area of Mexico City that includes non-urban areas at the south

Mexico City (Spanish: Ciudad de México, locally [sjuˈða(ð) ðe ˈmexiko] (About this soundlisten);[12] abbreviated as CDMX; Nahuatl languages: Āltepētl Mēxihco) is the capital and largest city of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.[13][14] Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial centers in the world.[15] It is located in the Valley of Mexico (Valle de México), a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 subdivisions known as boroughs or demarcaciones territoriales.

The 2020 population for the city proper was 9,209,944,[9][16] with a land area of 1,485 square kilometers (573 sq mi).[17] According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the population of Greater Mexico City is 21,804,515, which makes it the second-largest metropolitan area in the Western Hemisphere (behind São Paulo, Brazil), the eleventh-largest agglomeration (2017), and the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world.[18]

Greater Mexico City has a GDP of $411 billion in 2011, which makes it one of the most productive urban areas in the world.[19] The city was responsible for generating 15.8% of Mexico's GDP, and the metropolitan area accounted for about 22% of the country's GDP.[20] If it were an independent country in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America, five times as large as Costa Rica and about the same size as Peru.[21]

Mexico's capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by indigenous people, the other being Quito, Ecuador. The city was originally built on an island of Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs in 1325 as Tenochtitlan, which was almost completely destroyed in the 1521 Siege of Tenochtitlan and subsequently redesigned and rebuilt in accordance with the Spanish urban standards. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán,[22] and as of 1585, it was officially known as Ciudad de México (Mexico City).[22] Mexico City was the political, administrative, and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire.[23] After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824.

After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were finally given the right to elect both a head of government and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly by election in 1997. Ever since, left-wing parties (first the Party of the Democratic Revolution and later the National Regeneration Movement) have controlled both of them.[24] The city has several progressive policies, such as abortion on demand, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, and same-sex marriage.

On 29 January 2016, it ceased to be the Federal District (Spanish: Distrito Federal or D.F.) and is now officially known as Ciudad de México (or CDMX), with a greater degree of autonomy.[25][26] A clause in the Constitution of Mexico, however, prevents it from becoming a state within the Mexican federation, as it is the seat of power in the country, unless the capital of the country were to be relocated elsewhere.[27]

  1. ^ "Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores – México". Archived from the original on 20 April 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
  2. ^ "De la Colonia / 13 agosto de 1521: rendición de México-Tenochtitlan". Archived from the original on 1 July 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
  3. ^ "Conmemora la SecretarĂa de Cultura el 185 Aniversario del Decreto de CreaciĂłn del Distrito Federal". Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
  4. ^ Agren, David (29 January 2015). "Mexico City officially changes its name to – Mexico City". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  5. ^ Senate of Mexico website: LXII & LXIII legislatures, Distrito Federal Retrieved 26 November 2013
  6. ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Distrito Federal". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  7. ^ "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on 30 January 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
  8. ^ "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on 2 March 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
  9. ^ a b "Censo Población y Vivienda 2020". (in Spanish). INEGI. 25 January 2021. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  10. ^
  11. ^ "Economy of Mexico City". n Mexico City Guides. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  12. ^ In isolation, de is pronounced [de].
  13. ^ "Artículo 44" (PDF). Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
  14. ^ Agren, David (29 January 2016). "Mexico City officially changes its name to – Mexico City". The Guardian.
  15. ^ Foreign Policy (2008). "The 2008 Global Cities Index". Archived from the original on 10 January 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2009.
  16. ^ National Population Council. "Mexico City Metropolitan Area" (PDF). Government of the State of Mexico. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2009.
  17. ^ Blouet, Brian W.; Blouet, Olwyn M. (2009). OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation: 15 Mexican States 2009. OECD Publishing. pp. 418, 299. ISBN 978-92-64-06012-8.
  18. ^ United Nations (2007). "World Urbanization Prospects". Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 27 December 2009.
  19. ^ Global MetroMonitor | Brookings Institution Archived 5 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 12 April 2014.
  20. ^ "Mexico City GDP as compared with national GDP". Archived from the original on 26 April 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2010.
  21. ^ Parish Flannery, Nathaniel. "Mexico City Is Focusing on Tech Sector Development". Forbes. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  22. ^ a b Government of the Federal District. "History of Mexico City" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 19 December 2009. Retrieved 27 December 2009.
  23. ^ United Nations. "Mexico City, Mexico" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2 May 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2009.
  24. ^ Daniel C. Schechter, Josephine Quintero. Lonely Planet Mexico City, City Guide [With Pullout Map]. Third Edition. Lonely Planet, 2008. p. 288 (pp. 20–21). ISBN 978-1-74059-182-9.
  25. ^ "Federal District is now officially Mexico City: The change brings more autonomy for the country's capital". Mexico News Daily. 30 January 2016. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
  26. ^ From DF to CDMX, Mexico City changes name, status. Agence France-Presse / 07:45 AM January 30, 2016
  27. ^ El Diario de México. "La Ciudad de México no será estado, sino entidad federal autónoma" (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 February 2016.