London

London
Heron TowerTower 4230 St Mary AxeLeadenhall BuildingWillis BuildingLloyds BuildingCanary Wharf20 Fenchurch StreetCity of LondonLondon UndergroundElizabeth TowerTrafalgar SquareLondon EyeTower BridgeRiver ThamesLondon montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article.
About this image
Clockwise from top: City of London in the foreground with Canary Wharf in the far background, Trafalgar Square, London Eye, Tower Bridge and a London Underground roundel in front of Elizabeth Tower
London is located in the United Kingdom
London
London
Location within the United Kingdom
London is located in England
London
London
Location within England
London is located in Europe
London
London
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 51°30′26″N 0°7′39″W / 51.50722°N 0.12750°W / 51.50722; -0.12750Coordinates: 51°30′26″N 0°7′39″W / 51.50722°N 0.12750°W / 51.50722; -0.12750
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom United Kingdom
CountryEngland England
RegionLondon
CountiesGreater London
City of London
Settled by RomansAD 47[2]
as Londinium
DistrictsCity of London and 32 boroughs
Government
 • TypeExecutive mayoralty and deliberative assembly within unitary constitutional monarchy
 • BodyGreater London Authority
Mayor Sadiq Khan (L)
London Assembly
 • London Assembly14 constituencies
 • UK Parliament73 constituencies
Area
 • Total[A]1,572 km2 (607 sq mi)
 • Urban
1,737.9 km2 (671.0 sq mi)
 • Metro
8,382 km2 (3,236 sq mi)
 • City of London2.90 km2 (1.12 sq mi)
 • Greater London1,569 km2 (606 sq mi)
Elevation11 m (36 ft)
Population
 (2018)[5]
 • Total[A]8,961,989[1]
 • Density5,666/km2 (14,670/sq mi)
 • Urban
9,787,426
 • Metro
14,257,962[4] (1st)
 • City of London
8,706 (67th)
 • Greater London
8,899,375
DemonymsLondoner
GVA (2018)
 • Total£487 billion
($650 billion)
 • Per capita£54,686
($72,955)
Time zoneUTC (Greenwich Mean Time)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (British Summer Time)
Postcode areas
22 areas
Area codes
  • 020, 01322, 01689, 01708, 01737, 01895, 01923, 01959, 01992
International airportsHeathrow (LHR)
City (LCY)
Gatwick (LGW)
Stansted (STN)
Luton (LTN)
Southend (SEN)
Rapid transit systemUnderground
PoliceMetropolitan (excluding the City of London square-mile)
AmbulanceLondon
FireLondon
GeoTLD.london
Websitewww.london.gov.uk Edit this at Wikidata

London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom.[8][9] The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea. London has been a major settlement for two millennia, and was originally called Londinium, which was founded by the Romans.[10] The City of London, London's ancient core and financial centre—an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile—retains boundaries that closely follow its medieval limits.[note 1][11][12][13][14][15] The adjacent City of Westminster has for centuries been the location of much of the national government. Thirty-one additional boroughs north and south of the river also comprise modern London. The London region is governed by the mayor of London and the London Assembly.[note 2][16][17]

London is one of the world's most important global cities.[18] It exerts considerable influence upon the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transportation.[19] It is one of the largest financial centres in the world and in 2019, London had the second highest number of ultra high-net-worth individuals in Europe, after Paris.[20] And in 2020, London had the second-highest number of billionaires of any city in Europe, after Moscow.[21] London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe,[22] and London is home to highly ranked institutions such as Imperial College London in natural and applied sciences, the London School of Economics, as well as the comprehensive University College London.[23] In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games.[24]

London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.[25] Its estimated mid-2018 municipal population (corresponding to Greater London) was roughly 9 million,[5] which made it the third-most populous city in Europe.[26] London accounts for 13.4% of the U.K. population.[27] Greater London Built-up Area is the fourth-most populous in Europe, after Istanbul, Moscow, and Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.[28][29] The London metropolitan area is the third-most populous in Europe, after Istanbul and the Moscow Metropolitan Area, with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016.[note 3][4][30]

London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London; Kew Gardens; the site comprising the Palace of Westminster, Westminster Abbey, and St Margaret's Church; and the historic settlement in Greenwich where the Royal Observatory, Greenwich defines the Prime Meridian (0° longitude) and Greenwich Mean Time.[31] Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries, libraries and sporting events. These include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres.[32] The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world.

  1. ^ "Estimates of the population for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland – Office for National Statistics". www.ons.gov.uk.
  2. ^ Number 1 Poultry (ONE 94), Museum of London Archaeology, 2013. Archaeology Data Service, The University of York.
  3. ^ "London weather map". The Met Office. Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Metropolitan Area Populations". Eurostat. 18 June 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  5. ^ a b "Estimates of the population for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland". ONS. 28 September 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  6. ^ "Regional economic activity by gross domestic product, UK: 1998 to 2018". www.ons.gov.uk.
  7. ^ Sub-national HDI. "Area Database – Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org.
  8. ^ "London". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
  9. ^ "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. 1 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  10. ^ "Roman London". Museum of London. n.d. Archived from the original on 22 March 2008.
  11. ^ Fowler, Joshua (5 July 2013). "London Government Act: Essex, Kent, Surrey and Middlesex 50 years on". BBC News.
  12. ^ Cawley, Laurence (1 August 2013). "The big debate: Is Bromley in London or Kent?". Bromley Times.
  13. ^ Till, Joanna (14 February 2012). "Croydon, London or Croydon, Surrey?". Croydon Advertiser. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014.
  14. ^ "Government Offices for the English Regions, Fact Files: London". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 24 January 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2008.
  15. ^ Elcock, Howard (1994). Local Government: Policy and Management in Local Authorities. London: Routledge. p. 368. ISBN 978-0-415-10167-7.
  16. ^ Jones, Bill; Kavanagh, Dennis; Moran, Michael; Norton, Philip (2007). Politics UK. Harlow: Pearson Education. p. 868. ISBN 978-1-4058-2411-8.
  17. ^ "Lieutenancies Act 1997". www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  18. ^ "Global Power City Index 2020". Institute for Urban Strategies – The Mori Memorial Foundation. Retrieved 25 March 2021.; Adewunmi, Bim (10 March 2013). "London: The Everything Capital of the World". The Guardian. London.; "What's The Capital of the World?". More Intelligent Life. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
  19. ^ "The World's Most Influential Cities 2014". Forbes. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2021.; Dearden, Lizzie (8 October 2014). "London is 'the most desirable city in the world to work in', study finds". The Independent. London. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  20. ^ "The top 10 cities around the world with the most ultra-wealthy people, ranked". Wealth-X. 7 October 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  21. ^ Tognini, Giacomo. "World's Richest Cities: The Top 10 Cities Billionaires Call Home". Forbes. New York. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  22. ^ "Number of international students in London continues to grow" (Press release). Greater London Authority. 20 August 2008. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010.
  23. ^ "Times Higher Education World University Rankings".; "Top Universities: Imperial College London".; "Top Universities: LSE". Retrieved 21 September 2019.
  24. ^ "IOC elects London as the Host City of the Games of the XXX Olympiad in 2012" (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 6 July 2005. Archived from the original on 17 October 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2006.
  25. ^ "Languages spoken in the UK population". National Centre for Language. 16 June 2008. Archived from the original on 24 September 2008.Additional archives: 13 February 2005.
  26. ^ "Largest EU City. Over 7 million residents in 2001". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 8 January 2009. Retrieved 28 June 2008.
  27. ^ "Focus on London – Population and Migration | London DataStore". Greater London Authority. Archived from the original on 16 October 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
  28. ^ "Demographia World Urban Areas, 15th Annual Edition" (PDF). Demographia. April 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  29. ^ "2011 Census – Built-up areas". nomisweb.co.uk. ONS. 28 June 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
  30. ^ "The London Plan (March 2015)". Greater London Authority. 15 October 2015. Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  31. ^ "Lists: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland - Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
  32. ^ Blackman, Bob (25 January 2008). "West End Must Innovate to Renovate, Says Report". What's on Stage. London. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2010.


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