List of Confederate monuments and memorials

The public display in the United States of Confederate monuments, memorials and symbols has been and continues to be controversial. The following is a list of Confederate monuments and memorials that were established as public displays and symbols of the Confederate States of America (CSA), Confederate leaders, or Confederate soldiers of the American Civil War. Many monuments and memorials have been or are being removed. (See Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials.) Part of the commemoration of the American Civil War, these symbols include monuments and statues, flags, holidays and other observances, and the names of schools, roads, parks, bridges, buildings, counties, cities, lakes, dams, military bases, and other public structures.[a] In a December 2018 special report, Smithsonian Magazine stated, "over the past ten years, taxpayers have directed at least $40 million to Confederate monuments—statues, homes, parks, museums, libraries and cemeteries—and to Confederate heritage organizations."[2]

This list does not include figures connected with the origins of the Civil War or white supremacy, but not with the Confederacy, including statues of Supreme Court Justice Roger B. Taney in Annapolis, Baltimore, and Frederick, Maryland; the county and city named for pro-slavery congressman Preston Brooks; a controversial portrait of North Carolina Chief Justice Thomas Ruffin;[3] and numerous memorials to Southern politician John C. Calhoun (commemorated on the Confederacy's 1¢ stamp), although monuments to Calhoun "have been the most consistent targets" of vandals.[4] It also does not include post-Civil War white supremacists, such as North Carolina Governor Charles Aycock and Mississippi Governor James K. Vardaman.

Monuments and memorials are listed below alphabetically by state, and by city within each state. States not listed have no known qualifying items for the list.[5]

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference SPLC2016pdf was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Smithson was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ Shaffer, Josh (October 25, 2018). "NC's highest court will review courtroom portraits amid complaint about pro-slavery judge". Island Packet.
  4. ^ Kytle, Ethan J.; Roberts, Blain (June 25, 2015). "Take Down the Confederate Flags, but Not the Monuments". The Atlantic. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  5. ^ Criss, Doug; Elkin, Elizabeth (June 5, 2018). "The state leading the way in removing Confederate monuments? Texas". CNN.

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