The Incoterms or International Commercial Terms are a series of pre-defined commercial terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) relating to international commercial law.[1] They are widely used in international commercial transactions or procurement processes and their use is encouraged by trade councils, courts and international lawyers.[2] A series of three-letter trade terms related to common contractual sales practices, the Incoterms rules are intended primarily to clearly communicate the tasks, costs, and risks associated with the global or international transportation and delivery of goods. Incoterms inform sales contracts defining respective obligations, costs, and risks involved in the delivery of goods from the seller to the buyer, but they do not themselves conclude a contract, determine the price payable, currency or credit terms, govern contract law or define where title to goods transfers.

The Incoterms rules are accepted by governments, legal authorities, and practitioners worldwide for the interpretation of most commonly used terms in international trade. They are intended to reduce or remove altogether uncertainties arising from the differing interpretations of the rules in different countries. As such they are regularly incorporated into sales contracts worldwide.[3]

"Incoterms" is a registered trademark of the ICC.

The first work published by the ICC on international trade terms was issued in 1923, with the first edition known as Incoterms published in 1936. The Incoterms rules were amended in 1953,[4] 1967, 1976, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010, with the ninth version — Incoterms 2020 [5] — having been published on September 10, 2019.

  1. ^ Incoterms 2020
  2. ^ Vishny, Paul H. (1981). Guide to international commerce law. St. Paul, MN: West Group. ISBN 0070675139.
  3. ^ "ICC Guide to Incoterms® 2010". ICC. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  4. ^ "Incoterms® 1953" (PDF). UNCITRAL. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  5. ^ "Incoterms® 2020". ICC.