Grand Canyon

Grand Canyon
Canyon River Tree (165872763).jpeg
The Colorado River flowing through the Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon is located in Arizona
Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
Location within Arizona
Grand Canyon is located in the United States
Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
Location within the United States
Grand Canyon is located in North America
Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
Location within North America
Floor elevationapprox. 2,600 feet (800 m)
Length277 miles (446 km)
Width4 to 18 miles (6.4 to 29.0 km)
Age5–6 million years[1]
LocationArizona, U.S.
Coordinates36°18′N 112°36′W / 36.3°N 112.6°W / 36.3; -112.6Coordinates: 36°18′N 112°36′W / 36.3°N 112.6°W / 36.3; -112.6
RiversColorado River

The Grand Canyon (Hopi: Ongtupqa,[2] Yavapai: Wi:kaʼi:la, Navajo: Bidááʼ Haʼaztʼiʼ Tsékooh,[3][4] Spanish: Gran Cañón) is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States. The Grand Canyon is 277 miles (446 km) long, up to 18 miles (29 km) wide and attains a depth of over a mile (6,093 feet or 1,857 meters).[5]

The canyon and adjacent rim are contained within Grand Canyon National Park, the Kaibab National Forest, Grand Canyon–Parashant National Monument, the Hualapai Indian Reservation, the Havasupai Indian Reservation and the Navajo Nation. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of the preservation of the Grand Canyon area and visited it on numerous occasions to hunt and enjoy the scenery.

Nearly two billion years of Earth's geological history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut their channels through layer after layer of rock while the Colorado Plateau was uplifted.[6] While some aspects about the history of incision of the canyon are debated by geologists,[7] several recent studies support the hypothesis that the Colorado River established its course through the area about 5 to 6 million years ago.[1][8][9] Since that time, the Colorado River has driven the down-cutting of the tributaries and retreat of the cliffs, simultaneously deepening and widening the canyon.

For thousands of years, the area has been continuously inhabited by Native Americans, who built settlements within the canyon and its many caves. The Pueblo people considered the Grand Canyon a holy site, and made pilgrimages to it.[10] The first European known to have viewed the Grand Canyon was García López de Cárdenas from Spain, who arrived in 1540.[11]

  1. ^ a b Karlstrom, Karl E.; Lee, John P.; Kelley, Shari A.; Crow, Ryan S.; et al. (2014). "Formation of the Grand Canyon 5 to 6 million years ago through integration of older palaeocanyons". Nature Geoscience. 7 (3): 239–244. Bibcode:2014NatGe...7..239K. doi:10.1038/ngeo2065.
  2. ^ "Pueblos join forces to oppose Grand Canyon Escalade Project". Navajo Times. September 11, 2014. Archived from the original on June 1, 2016. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  3. ^ Linford, Laurence D. Navajo Places. History, Legend, Landscape. University of Utah Press. Salt Lake City, UT: 2000.
  4. ^ Wilson, Alan with Gene Dennison. Navajo Place Names. An observer's guide. Jeffrey Norton Publishers. Guilford, CT: 1995.
  5. ^ Kiver, E.P.; Harris, D.V. (1999). Geology of US Parklands. Wiley. p. 902.
  6. ^ Geologic Formations of the Grand Canyon Archived April 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine National Park Service Retrieved November 17, 2009
  7. ^ Ranney, Wayne (2005). Carving Grand Canyon: Evidence, Theories, and Mystery. Grand Canyon Association. ISBN 978-0-938216-82-7.
  8. ^ Darling, Andrew; Whipple, Kelin (2015). "Geomorphic constraints on the age of the western Grand Canyon". Geosphere. 11 (4): 958–976. Bibcode:2015Geosp..11..958D. doi:10.1130/ges01131.1.
  9. ^ Spencer, J.E.; Patchett, P.J.; Pearthree, P.A.; House, P.K.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.M.; Wan, E.; Roskowski, J.A.; Faulds, J.E. (2013). "Review and analysis of the age and origin of the Pliocene Bouse Formation, lower Colorado River Valley, southwestern USA". Geosphere. 9 (3): 444–459. Bibcode:2013Geosp...9..444S. doi:10.1130/ges00896.1.
  10. ^ Mitchell, Douglas R.; Lippert, Dorothy; Brunson-Hadley, Judy L. (2004). Ancient Burial Practices in the American Southwest (reprint, illustrated ed.). Albuquerque, NM: UNM Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-8263-3461-9. Archived from the original on May 17, 2016.
  11. ^ "History of the Colorado Plateau". Utah History Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013. Retrieved October 22, 2010.