Franklin's lost expedition

The Arctic Council planning a search for Sir John Franklin by Stephen Pearce, 1851. Left to right are: Sir George Back; Sir William Edward Parry; Edward Bird; Sir James Clark Ross; Sir Francis Beaufort (seated); John Barrow, Jnr.; Sir Edward Sabine; William A. Baillie-Hamilton; Sir John Richardson; and Frederick William Beechey.
Sir John Franklin was Barrow's reluctant choice to lead the expedition.
Portrait of Jane Griffin (later Lady Franklin), 24, in 1815. She married John Franklin in 1828, a year before he was knighted.[1]
Captain Francis Crozier, executive officer for the expedition, commanded HMS Terror.
Commander James Fitzjames commanded the expedition's flagship, HMS Erebus.

Franklin's lost expedition was a failed British voyage of Arctic exploration led by Captain Sir John Franklin that departed England in 1845 aboard two ships, HMS Erebus and HMS Terror, and was assigned to traverse the last unnavigated sections of the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Arctic and to record magnetic data to help determine whether a better understanding could aid navigation.[2] The expedition met with disaster after both ships and their crews, a total of 129 officers and men, became icebound in Victoria Strait near King William Island in what is today the Canadian territory of Nunavut. After being icebound for more than a year Erebus and Terror were abandoned in April 1848, by which point Franklin and nearly two dozen others had died. The survivors, now led by Franklin's second-in-command, Francis Crozier, and Erebus's captain, James Fitzjames, set out for the Canadian mainland and disappeared, presumably having perished.[3]

Pressed by Franklin's wife, Jane, and others, the Admiralty launched a search for the missing expedition in 1848. In the many subsequent searches in the decades afterwards, several artifacts from the expedition were discovered, including the remains of two men, which were returned to Britain. A series of scientific studies in modern times suggested that the men of the expedition did not all die quickly. Hypothermia, starvation, lead poisoning[4] or zinc deficiency,[5] and diseases including scurvy, along with general exposure to a hostile environment while lacking adequate clothing and nutrition, killed everyone on the expedition in the years after it was last sighted by Europeans in 1845. Cut marks on some of the bones recovered during these studies also supported allegations of cannibalism reported by Franklin searcher John Rae in 1854.

Despite the expedition's notorious failure, it did succeed in exploring the vicinity of what was one of the many Northwest Passages to eventually be discovered. Robert McClure led one of the expeditions that investigated the fate of Franklin's expedition, a voyage which was also beset by great challenges and later controversies. McClure's expedition returned after finding an ice-bound route that connected the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.[6] The Northwest Passage was not navigated by boat until 1906, when Roald Amundsen traversed the passage on the Gjøa.

In 2014 a Canadian search team led by Parks Canada[7] located the wreck of Erebus in the eastern portion of Queen Maud Gulf. Two years later, the Arctic Research Foundation found the wreck of Terror south of King William Island, in the coincidentally named Terror Bay.[8] Research and dive expeditions are an annual occurrence at the wreck sites, now protected as a combined National Historic Site.

  1. ^ Serle, Percival (1949). "Franklin, Jane, Lady (1792–1875)". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Angus and Robertson. Retrieved 2 March 2008 – via Project Gutenberg Australia.
  2. ^ "The Franklin Expedition: What happened on the ill-fated Victorian voyage?".
  3. ^ Neatby, Leslie H. & Mercer, Keith. "Sir John Franklin". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
  4. ^ Battersby, William (2008). "Identification of the Probable Source of the Lead Poisoning Observed in Members of the Franklin Expedition" (PDF). Journal of the Hakluyt Society. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference witze2016 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ Armstrong, A. (1857). A Personal Narrative of the Discovery of the Northwest Passage. London: Hurst & Blackett. OCLC 1083888725.
  7. ^ "Franklin expedition ship found in Arctic ID'd as HMS Erebus". CBC News. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Guardian was invoked but never defined (see the help page).