Bisexuality

Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior toward both males and females,[1][2][3] or to more than one sex or gender.[4] It may also be defined as romantic or sexual attraction to people of any sex or gender identity, which is also known as pansexuality.[5][6][7]

The term bisexuality is mainly used in the context of human attraction to denote romantic or sexual feelings toward both men and women,[1][2][8] and the concept is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation along with heterosexuality and homosexuality, all of which exist on the heterosexual–homosexual continuum. A bisexual identity does not necessarily equate to equal sexual attraction to both sexes; commonly, people who have a distinct but not exclusive sexual preference for one sex over the other also identify themselves as bisexual.[9]

Scientists do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is caused by a complex interplay of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences,[10][11][12] and do not view it as a choice.[10][11][13] Although no single theory on the cause of sexual orientation has yet gained widespread support, scientists favor biologically based theories.[10] There is considerably more evidence supporting nonsocial, biological causes of sexual orientation than social ones, especially for males.[3][8][14]

Bisexuality has been observed in various human societies[15] and elsewhere in the animal kingdom[16][17][18] throughout recorded history. The term bisexuality, however, like the terms hetero- and homosexuality, was coined in the 19th century.[19]

  1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference AmPsycholAssn was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ a b "Sexual Orientation". American Psychiatric Association. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
  3. ^ a b Bailey, J. Michael; Vasey, Paul; Diamond, Lisa; Breedlove, S. Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc (2016). "Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science". Psychological Science in the Public Interest. 17 (2): 45–101. doi:10.1177/1529100616637616. PMID 27113562.
  4. ^ "Understanding Bisexuality". American Psychological Association. 2019. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  5. ^ Soble, Alan (2006). "Bisexuality". Sex from Plato to Paglia: a philosophical encyclopedia. 1. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-313-32686-8.
  6. ^ Carroll JL (2015). Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity. Cengage Learning. p. 322. ISBN 978-1305446038. Pansexuality is also sometimes included under the definition of bisexuality, since pansexuality rejects the gender binary and encompasses romantic or sexual attractions to all gender identities.
  7. ^ Rice, Kim (2009). "Pansexuality". In Marshall Cavendish Corporation (ed.). Sex and Society. 2. Marshall Cavendish. p. 593. ISBN 978-0-7614-7905-5. Retrieved 3 October 2012. In some contexts, the term pansexuality is used interchangeably with bisexuality, which refers to attraction to individuals of both sexes... Those who identify as bisexual feel that gender, biological sex, and sexual orientation should not be a focal point in potential relationships.
  8. ^ a b LeVay, Simon (2017). Gay, Straight, and the Reason Why: The Science of Sexual Orientation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199752966.
  9. ^ Rosario, M.; Schrimshaw, E.; Hunter, J.; Braun, L. (2006). "Sexual identity development among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: Consistency and change over time". Journal of Sex Research. 43 (1): 46–58. doi:10.1080/00224490609552298. PMC 3215279. PMID 16817067.
  10. ^ a b c Frankowski BL; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence (June 2004). "Sexual orientation and adolescents". Pediatrics. 113 (6): 1827–32. doi:10.1542/peds.113.6.1827. PMID 15173519.
  11. ^ a b Lamanna, Mary Ann; Riedmann, Agnes; Stewart, Susan D (2014). Marriages, Families, and Relationships: Making Choices in a Diverse Society. Cengage Learning. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-305-17689-8. Retrieved 11 February 2016. The reason some individuals develop a gay sexual identity has not been definitively established  – nor do we yet understand the development of heterosexuality. The American Psychological Association (APA) takes the position that a variety of factors impact a person's sexuality. The most recent literature from the APA says that sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors...is shaped at an early age...[and evidence suggests] biological, including genetic or inborn hormonal factors, play a significant role in a person's sexuality (American Psychological Association 2010).
  12. ^ Gail Wiscarz Stuart (2014). Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 502. ISBN 978-0-323-29412-6. Retrieved 11 February 2016. No conclusive evidence supports any one specific cause of homosexuality; however, most researchers agree that biological and social factors influence the development of sexual orientation.
  13. ^ Gloria Kersey-Matusiak (2012). Delivering Culturally Competent Nursing Care. Springer Publishing Company. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-8261-9381-0. Retrieved 10 February 2016. Most health and mental health organizations do not view sexual orientation as a 'choice.'
  14. ^ Balthazart, Jacques (2012). The Biology of Homosexuality. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199838820.
  15. ^ Crompton, Louis (2003). Homosexuality and Civilization. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01197-7.
  16. ^ Bagemihl, Bruce (1999). Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. London: Profile Books, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-86197-182-1.
  17. ^ Roughgarden, Joan (May 2004). Evolution's Rainbow: Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24073-5.
  18. ^ Driscoll, Emily V. (July 2008). "Bisexual Species: Unorthodox Sex in the Animal Kingdom". Scientific American.
  19. ^ Harper, Douglas (November 2001). "Bisexuality". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 February 2007.