Russia

Coordinates: 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90

Russian Federation

  • Российская Федерация (Russian)
  • Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
Anthem: 
Государственный гимн Российской Федерации
Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii
("State Anthem of the Russian Federation")
Russia on the globe with disputed territories in light green.[a]
Russia on the globe with disputed territories in light green.[a]
Capital
and largest city
Moscow
55°45′N 37°37′E / 55.750°N 37.617°E / 55.750; 37.617
Official language
and national language
Russian[2]
Recognised national languagesSee Languages of Russia
Ethnic groups
(2010)[3]
Religion
(2017)[4]
Demonym(s)Russian
GovernmentFederal semi-presidential constitutional republic
• President
Vladimir Putin
Mikhail Mishustin
Valentina Matviyenko
Vyacheslav Volodin
Vyacheslav Lebedev
LegislatureFederal Assembly
Federation Council
State Duma
Formation
862
879
1283
16 January 1547
2 November 1721
15 March 1917
12 December 1991
12 December 1993
18 March 2014
4 July 2020
Area
• Total
17,098,246 km2 (6,601,670 sq mi)[5][b] (1st)
• Water (%)
13[7] (including swamps)
Population
• 2021 estimate
(9th)
• Density
8.4/km2 (21.8/sq mi) (225th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $4,226 trillion[9] (6th)
• Per capita
Increase $28,791[9] (50th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.584 trillion[9] (11th)
• Per capita
Increase $10,792[9] (61st)
Gini (2018)Negative increase 37.5[10]
medium · 98th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.824[11]
very high · 52nd
CurrencyRussian ruble () (RUB)
Time zoneUTC+2 to +12
Driving sideright
Calling code+7
ISO 3166 codeRU
Internet TLD

Russia (Russian: Россия, Rossiya, Russian pronunciation: [rɐˈsʲijə]), or the Russian Federation,[c] is a transcontinental country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world, covering 17,125,191 square kilometres (6,612,073 sq mi) and encompassing more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. It extends across eleven time zones, and has borders with sixteen sovereign nations. Russia has a population of 146.2 million; it is the most populous country in Europe, and the ninth-most populous country in the world. Moscow, the capital, is the largest city in Europe, while Saint Petersburg is the nation's second-largest city and cultural centre. Russians are the largest Slavic and European nation; they speak Russian, the most spoken Slavic language, and the most spoken native language in Europe.

The East Slavs emerged as a recognisable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. The medieval state of Rus' arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states, until it was finally reunified by the Grand Duchy of Moscow in the 15th century. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which became a major European power, and the third-largest empire in history. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian SFSR became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first human in space. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation. In the aftermath of the constitutional crisis of 1993, a new constitution was adopted, and Russia has since been governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Vladimir Putin has dominated Russia's political system since 2000, serving as either president or prime minister. His government has been widely accused of numerous human rights abuses, authoritarianism and corruption.

Russia is described as a potential superpower; with the world's second-most powerful military, and the fourth-highest military expenditure. It is ranked very high in the Human Development Index, with a universal healthcare system and a free university education. Russia's economy is the world's eleventh-largest by nominal GDP and the sixth-largest by PPP. It is a recognised nuclear-weapon state, possessing the world's largest stockpile of nuclear weapons. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the world's largest, and it is one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G20, the SCO, the Council of Europe, the APEC, the OSCE, the IIB and the WTO, as well as the leading member of the CIS, the CSTO, and the EAEU. Russia also hosts the ninth-greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

  1. ^ "Republic of Crimea". The Territories of the Russian Federation 2020. Routledge. 2020. ISBN 9781003007067. Note: The territories of the Crimean peninsula, comprising Sevastopol City and the Republic of Crimea, remained internationally recognised as constituting part of Ukraine, following their annexation by Russia in March 2014.
  2. ^ "The Constitution of the Russian Federation – Chapter 3. The Federal Structure, Article 68". constitution.ru. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
  3. ^ "ВПН-2010". perepis-2010.ru. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012.
  4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Pew2017 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ "World Statistics Pocketbook 2016 edition" (PDF). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Statistics Division. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  6. ^ "Information about availability and distribution of land in the Russian Federation as of 1 January 2017 (by federal subjects of Russia)" Сведения о наличии и распределении земель в Российской Федерации на 1 January 2017 (в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации). Rosreestr.
  7. ^ "The Russian federation: general characteristics". Federal State Statistics Service. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
  8. ^ a b Оценка численности постоянного населения на 1 января 2021 г. и в среднем за 2020 г. [Estimated population as of 1 January 2021 and on the average for 2020] (XLS). Russian Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian). Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  9. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  10. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate) – Russian Federation". World Bank. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  11. ^ "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.


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