Myanmar

Republic of the Union of Myanmar

  • ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်‌  (Burmese)
  • Pyidaunzu Thanmăda Myăma Nainngandaw
Anthem: 
Myanmar (orthographic projection).svg
Location Burma (Myanmar) ASEAN.svg
Location of Myanmar (green)

in ASEAN (dark grey)  –  [Legend]

CapitalNaypyidaw[a]
19°45′N 96°6′E / 19.750°N 96.100°E / 19.750; 96.100
Largest cityYangon[b]
Official languagesBurmese
Recognised regional languages
Official scriptBurmese script
Ethnic groups
(2018[1][2])
Religion
Demonym(s)Burmese / Myanma[4]
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary assembly-independent republic under a military junta
• President
Myint Swe (acting)
LegislatureAssembly of the Union
House of Nationalities
House of Representatives
Formation
c. 180 BCE
23 December 849
16 October 1510
29 February 1752
1 January 1886
4 January 1948
2 March 1962
• Renamed from "Burma" to "Myanmar"
18 June 1989
• Restoration of presidency
30 March 2011
1 February 2021
Area
• Total
676,578 km2 (261,228 sq mi) (39th)
• Water (%)
3.06
Population
• 2017 census
53,582,855 (2017)[5] (26th)
• Density
76/km2 (196.8/sq mi) (125th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $355 billion[6] (51st)
• Per capita
Decrease $6,707[6] (128th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $66 billion[6] (72nd)
• Per capita
Increase $1,245[6] (155th)
Gini (2015)38.1[7]
medium
HDI (2019)Decrease 0.583[8]
medium · 147th
CurrencyKyat (K) (MMK)
Time zoneUTC+06:30 (MMT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+95
ISO 3166 codeMM
Internet TLD.mm
  1. ^ Also spelled "Nay Pyi Taw".
  2. ^ Also spelled "Rangoon".

Myanmar (English pronunciation below; Burmese: မြန်မာ [mjəmà])[nb 1] or Burma (Burmese: ဗမာ [bəmà]), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar,[nb 2] is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by Bangladesh and India to its northwest, China to its northeast, Laos and Thailand to its east and southeast, and the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal to its south and southwest. Myanmar is the largest country in Mainland Southeast Asia and the 10th largest in Asia by area. As of 2017, the population was about 54 million.[5] Its capital city is Naypyidaw, and its largest city is Yangon (Rangoon).[2]

Early civilisations in the area included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Myanmar and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Myanmar.[9] In the 9th century, the Bamar people entered the upper Irrawaddy valley, and following the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language, culture, and Theravada Buddhism slowly became dominant in the country. The Pagan Kingdom fell to Mongol invasions, and several warring states emerged. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo dynasty, the country became the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia for a short period.[10] The early 19th-century Konbaung dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Myanmar and briefly controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British East India Company seized control of the administration of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century, and the country became a British colony. After a brief Japanese occupation, Myanmar was reconquered by the Allies and granted independence in 1948. Following a coup d'état in 1962, it became a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Programme Party.

For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and its myriad ethnic groups have been involved in one of the world's longest-running ongoing civil wars. During this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country.[11] In 2011, the military junta was officially dissolved following a 2010 general election, and a nominally civilian government was installed. This, along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners, had improved the country's human rights record and foreign relations and has led to the easing of trade and other economic sanctions.[12] There is, however, continuing criticism of the government's treatment of ethnic minorities, its response to the ethnic insurgency, and religious clashes.[13] In the 2015 election, Aung San Suu Kyi's party won a majority in both houses. However, the Burmese military remained a powerful force in politics and, on 1 February 2021, again seized power in a coup d'état.[14]

Myanmar is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement, ASEAN, and BIMSTEC, but it is not a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. It is a country rich in jade and gems, oil, natural gas, and other mineral resources. Myanmar is also endowed with renewable energy; it has the highest solar power potential compared to other countries of the Great Mekong Subregion.[15] In 2013, its GDP (nominal) stood at US$56.7 billion and its GDP (PPP) at US$221.5 billion.[16] The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the military government.[17] As of 2020, according to the Human Development Index, Myanmar ranks 147 out of 189 countries in human development.[8]

  1. ^ "Largest Ethnic Groups In Myanmar". Worldatlas.
  2. ^ a b "Burma". The World Factbook. U.S. Central Intelligence Agency.
  3. ^ "The 2014 Myanmar Population and Housing Census- The Union Report: Religion" (PDF). myanmar.unfpa.org. Department of Population Ministry of Labour, Immigration and Population MYANMAR. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 March 2018. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  4. ^ "ACT Health Community Profile, pg. 1" (PDF). Multicultural Health Policy Unit. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 April 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
  5. ^ a b "Myanmar Population (2018) – Worldometers". worldometers.info.
  6. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  7. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  8. ^ a b Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  9. ^ O'Reilly, Dougald JW (2007). Early civilizations of Southeast Asia. United Kingdom: Altamira Press. ISBN 978-0-7591-0279-8.
  10. ^ Lieberman, p. 152
  11. ^ "Burma". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
    "Myanmar Human Rights". Amnesty International USA. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
    "World Report 2012: Burma". Human Rights Watch. 22 January 2012. Archived from the original on 30 June 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  12. ^ Madhani, Aamer (16 November 2012). "Obama administration eases Burma sanctions before visit". USA Today.
    Fuller, Thomas; Geitner, Paul (23 April 2012). "European Union Suspends Most Myanmar Sanctions". The New York Times.
  13. ^ Greenwood, Faine (27 May 2013). "The 8 Stages of Genocide Against Burma's Rohingya | UN DispatchUN Dispatch". Undispatch.com. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
    "EU welcomes "measured" Myanmar response to rioting". Reuters. 11 June 2012.
    "Q&A: Communal violence in Burma". BBC. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
  14. ^ "Myanmar military takes control of country after detaining Aung San Suu Kyi". BBC News. 1 February 2021. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  15. ^ Vakulchuk, Roman; Kyaw Kyaw Hlaing; Edward Ziwa Naing; Indra Overland; Beni Suryadi and Sanjayan Velautham (2017). Myanmar’s Attractiveness for Investment in the Energy Sector. A Comparative International Perspective. Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) and Myanmar Institute of Strategic and International Studies (MISIS) Report. p. 8.
  16. ^ "Burma (Myanmar)". World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund.
  17. ^ Eleven Media (4 September 2013). "Income Gap 'world's widest'". The Nation. Archived from the original on 15 September 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
    McCornac, Dennis (22 October 2013). "Income inequality in Burma". Democratic Voice of Burma. Archived from the original on 15 September 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.


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