Lebanon

Coordinates: 33°50′N 35°50′E / 33.833°N 35.833°E / 33.833; 35.833

Lebanese Republic

ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱللُّبْنَانِيَّةُ (Arabic)
al-Jumhūrīyah al-Lubnānīyah
République libanaise  (French)
Anthem: "كلّنا للوطن"  (Arabic)
"Kullunā li-l-waṭan"
"All of us! For our Country!" (English)
Location of Lebanon
Capital
and largest city
Beirut
33°54′N 35°32′E / 33.900°N 35.533°E / 33.900; 35.533
Official languagesArabic[nb 1]
Recognised languagesFrench
Local vernacularLebanese Arabic[nb 2]
Ethnic groups
(2014[1])
Religion
Demonym(s)Lebanese
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary confessionalist constitutional republic[3]
• President
Michel Aoun
Cynthia Dalal
Ali Ibrahim
LegislatureParliament
Establishment
1 September 1920
23 May 1926
• Independence declared
22 November 1943
• French mandate ended
24 October 1945
• Withdrawal of French forces
17 April 1946
• Syrian and Israeli occupations
1976–2005
24 May 2000
30 April 2005
Area
• Total
10,452 km2 (4,036 sq mi) (161st)
• Water (%)
1.8
Population
• 2018 estimate
6,859,408[4][5] (109th)
• Density
560/km2 (1,450.4/sq mi) (21st)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
$91 billion[6]
• Per capita
$11,562[6] (66th)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
$18 billion[6] (82nd)
• Per capita
$2,745[6]
GiniPositive decrease 50.7
high
HDI (2019)Increase 0.744[7]
high · 92nd
CurrencyLebanese pound (LBP)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (EEST)
Driving sideright [8]
Calling code+961[9]
ISO 3166 codeLB
Internet TLD.lb

Lebanon (/ˈlɛbənɒn, -nən/ (About this soundlisten)),[10] officially known as the Lebanese Republic,[nb 3] is a country in the Levant region of Western Asia, and the transcontinental region of the Middle East.[11][12][13][14] It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus lies west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland has contributed to its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity.[15] At just 10,452 km2 (4,036 mi2), it is one of the smallest recognized sovereign states in the Asian continent.[16][17] The official language, Arabic, is the most common language spoken by the citizens of Lebanon.[nb 4]

The earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history.[18] Lebanon was home to the Phoenicians, a maritime culture that flourished for almost three thousand years (c. 3200–539 BC). In 64 BC, the Roman Empire conquered the region, and eventually became one of its leading centers of Christianity.[citation needed] The Mount Lebanon range saw the emergence of a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church. As the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their religion and identity. However, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome. These ties have influenced the region into the modern era.[clarification needed][citation needed]

Lebanon was conquered by the Ottomans in the 16th century and remained under their rule for the next 400 years. Following the empire's collapse after World War I, the five provinces constituting modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate. The French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, which was predominately Maronite and Druze, to include more Muslims.[citation needed] Upon independence in 1943, Lebanon established a unique confessionalist form of government, with the major religious sects apportioned specific political powers. Lebanon initially enjoyed political and economic stability, which was shattered by the bloody Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) between various political and sectarian factions. The war partially led to military occupations by Syria (1975 to 2005) and Israel (1985 to 2000).

Despite Lebanon's small size,[19] Lebanese culture is renowned both in the Arab world and globally, powered by its large and influential diaspora.[citation needed] Prior to the civil war, the country enjoyed a diversified economy that included tourism, agriculture, commerce, and banking.[20] Its financial power and stability through the 1950s and 1960s earned Lebanon the name of "Switzerland of the East",[21] while its capital, Beirut, attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the Paris of the Middle East".[22] Since the end of the war, there have been extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure.[23] While still recovering from the political and economic effects of the conflict, Lebanon remains a cosmopolitan and developing country, with one of the highest levels of Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world outside of the oil-rich economies of the Persian Gulf.[24]

Lebanon was a founding member of the United Nations in 1945 and is a member of the Arab League (1945), the Non-Aligned Movement (1961), Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation (1969), and the Organisation internationale de la francophonie (1973).
Cite error: There are <ref group=nb> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=nb}} template (see the help page).

  1. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20140629181559/https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/le.html
  2. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report for 2017". United States Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human rights and Labor. 20 January 2017. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  3. ^ "The Lebanese Constitution" (PDF). Presidency of Lebanon. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
  4. ^ ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  5. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d "Lebanon". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  7. ^ "Human Development Report 2019". United Nations Development Programme. 10 December 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 April 2020. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  8. ^ "Driving in Lebanon". adcidl.com. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  9. ^ Cite error: The named reference cia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ "Lebanon | meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary". Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  11. ^ "THE LEBANESE CONSTITUTION: "Lebanon is Arab in its identity and in its affiliation. It is a founding and active member of the League of Arab States and abides by its pacts and covenants."" (PDF).
  12. ^ (PDF) https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Lebanon_2004.pdf?lang=en. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  13. ^ "Lebanon country profile". 14 May 2018. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  14. ^ "Lebanon urges Arab League to readmit Syria ahead of regional summit". France 24. 19 January 2019. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  15. ^ McGowen, Afaf Sabeh (1989). "Historical Setting". In Collelo, Thomas (ed.). Lebanon: A Country Study. Area Handbook Series (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: The Division. OCLC 18907889. Retrieved 24 July 2009.
  16. ^ Chehaitly, Karmah (16 June 2015). "Lebanon: a small country with a lot going on - Solvay Student Review". Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  17. ^ "The smallest countries in the world by area". www.countries-ofthe-world.com. Archived from the original on 19 August 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  18. ^ Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E.; Abu-Lughod, Janet L. (2006). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa. ABC-CLIO. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-57607-919-5. Archaeological excavations at Byblos indicate that the site has been continually inhabited since at least 5000 B.C.
  19. ^ "Lebanon country profile". BBC News. 24 August 2011. Archived from the original on 16 October 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  20. ^ "Background Note: Lebanon". U.S. Department of State. 22 March 2010. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
  21. ^ Moubayed, Sami (5 September 2007). "Lebanon douses a terrorist fire". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 8 July 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2009.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  22. ^ Johnson, Anna (2006). "Lebanon: Tourism Depends on Stability". Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2006.
  23. ^ Cite error: The named reference Canada was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  24. ^ "World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP) Statistical Annex: Country Classification" (PDF). un.org. Retrieved 28 September 2020.