Karnataka

Karnataka
Mysore Palace Morning.jpg
7th - 9th century Hindu and Jain temples, Pattadakal monuments Karnataka 5.jpg
Shravanabelagola Bahubali wideframe.jpg
Coorg's Scenic Nature.jpg
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Hoysala emblem.jpg
Yakshagana new.jpg
Hampi virupaksha temple.jpg
Nickname(s): 
Karunadu
Anthem: "Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate"[1]
"(Victory To You Mother Karnataka, Daughter of Mother India)
Map of Karnataka
Map of Karnataka
Coordinates (Bangalore): 12°58′N 77°30′E / 12.97°N 77.50°E / 12.97; 77.50Coordinates: 12°58′N 77°30′E / 12.97°N 77.50°E / 12.97; 77.50
CountryIndia
Formation1 November 1956
(as Mysore State)
CapitalBangalore
Largest CityBangalore
Districts31
Government
 • BodyGovernment of Karnataka
 • GovernorVajubhai Vala
 • Chief MinisterB. S. Yediyurappa (BJP)
 • Deputy Chief Ministers
 • LegislatureBicameral
 • Parliamentary constituency
Area
 • Total191,791 km2 (74,051 sq mi)
Area rank6th
Highest elevation
1,925 m (6,316 ft)
Lowest elevation
(MSL)
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2011)[2]
 • Total61,130,704
 • Rank8th
 • Density320/km2 (830/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Kannadiga (masculine)
Kannadati (feminine)
GDP (2019–20)
 • Total16.99 trillion (US$240 billion)
 • Per capita231,246 (US$3,200)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-KA
Vehicle registrationKA
Official languagesKannada[5]
HDI (2018)Increase 0.682[6] medium · 19th
Literacy (2011)75.36%[7]
Sex ratio (2011)973 /1000 [7]
Websitewww.karnataka.gov.in
Symbols of Karnataka
FlagIndian Flag
Flag of India.svg
EmblemEmblem of Karnataka
Seal of Karnataka.svg
[8]
SongJaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate[9]
Mammal
IndianElephant.jpg
Indian elephant[10]
Bird
Indian Roller (Coracias benghalensis)2.jpg
Indian Roller[10]
Flower
Lotus flower (978659).jpg
Lotus[10]
Tree
(Pterocarpus santalinus) red sandalwood tree at IG Zoo Park in Visakhapatnam 02.jpg
Sandalwood[10]

Karnataka (ISO: Karnāṭaka, Kannada pronunciation: [kəɾˈnɑːʈəkɑ]) is a state in the south western region of India. It is the largest state in South India and sixth largest in India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973. The state corresponds to the Carnatic region. Its capital and largest city is Bangalore.

Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, and Kerala to the south. It is the only southern state to have land borders with all of the other 4 southern Indian sister states. The state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres (74,122 sq mi), or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 31 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. Other minority languages spoken include Urdu, Konkani, Marathi, Tulu, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kodava and Beary. Karnataka also contains some of the only villages in India where Sanskrit is primarily spoken.[11][12][13]

Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the generally accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu Nadu may also be read as karu, meaning "black" and nadu, meaning "region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state. The British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna.[14]

With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India. The philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day. Karnataka has contributed significantly to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions.

The economy of Karnataka is the fourth-largest of any Indian state with 16.99 trillion (US$240 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of 231,000 (US$3,200).[3][4] Karnataka has the nineteenth highest ranking among Indian states in Human Development Index.[6]

  1. ^ "Protected Areas of India: State-wise break up of Wildlife Sanctuaries" (PDF). Wildlife Institute of India. Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 October 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  2. ^ "Figures at a glance" (PDF). 2011 Provisional census data. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 October 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  3. ^ a b "MOSPI Gross State Domestic Product". Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India. 31 July 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  4. ^ a b "Karnataka Budget 2018–19" (PDF). Karnataka Finance Dept. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  5. ^ 50th Report of the Commission for Linguistic Minorities in India (PDF). nclm.nic.in. p. 123. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016.
  6. ^ a b "Sub-national HDI – Area Database". Global Data Lab. Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  7. ^ a b "Census 2011 (Final Data) – Demographic details, Literate Population (Total, Rural & Urban)" (PDF). planningcommission.gov.in. Planning Commission, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  8. ^ Shankar, Shiva (7 February 2018). "State flag may be a tricolour with Karnataka emblem on white". The Times of India. The Times Group. Archived from the original on 17 July 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  9. ^ "Poem declared 'State song'". The Hindu. 11 January 2004. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d Huq, Iteshamul, ed. (2015). "Introduction" (PDF). A Handbook of Karnataka (Fifth ed.). Karnataka Gazetteer Department. p. 48.
  11. ^ "Seven Indian villages where people speak in Sanskrit". 24 September 2017. Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  12. ^ "Know about these 4 Indian villages where SANSKRIT is still their first language". Archived from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  13. ^ "Five Indian villages where sanskrit is spoken". Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  14. ^ See Lord Macaulay's life of Clive and James Talboys Wheeler: Early History of British India, London (1878) p.98. The principal meaning is the western half of this area, but the rulers there controlled the Coromandel Coast as well.