Azerbaijan

Republic of Azerbaijan

Azərbaycan Respublikası  (Azerbaijani)
Anthem: 
Location of Azerbaijan (green) with territory controlled by the self-proclaimed Republic of Artsakh shown in light green.[a]
Location of Azerbaijan (green) with territory controlled by the self-proclaimed Republic of Artsakh shown in light green.[a]
Location of Azerbaijan
Capital
and largest city
Coat of arms of Baku.svg Baku
40°23′43″N 49°52′56″E / 40.39528°N 49.88222°E / 40.39528; 49.88222
Official languagesAzerbaijani[1]
Minority languagesSee full list
Ethnic groups
(2009[2])
Religion
Demonym(s)Azerbaijani
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic[4]
• President
Ilham Aliyev
Mehriban Aliyeva
Ali Asadov
Sahiba Gafarova
LegislatureNational Assembly
Formation
28 May 1918
28 April 1920
• Independence from Soviet Union
  • 30 August 1991 (declared)
  • 18 October 1991 (independence)
  • 25 December 1991 (completed)
21 December 1991
2 March 1992
• Constitution adopted
12 November 1995
Area
• Total
86,600 km2 (33,400 sq mi) (112th)
• Water (%)
1.6
Population
• 2019 estimate
10,127,874[5] (91st)
• Density
115/km2 (297.8/sq mi) (99th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$189.050 billion[6]
• Per capita
$18,793[6]
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$45.284 billion[6]
• Per capita
$4,498[6]
Gini (2005)26.6[7]
low
HDI (2019)Increase 0.756[8]
high · 88th
CurrencyManat (₼) (AZN)
Time zoneUTC+4 (AZT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+994
ISO 3166 codeAZ
Internet TLD.az

Azerbaijan (UK: /ˌæzərbˈɑːn, -ˈʒɑːn/ (About this soundlisten), US: /ˌɑːzərbˈɑːn, ˌæz-/;[9] Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan [ɑːzæɾbɑjˈd͡ʒɑn]), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Respublikası [ɑːzæɾbɑjˈd͡ʒɑn ɾespublikɑˈsɯ]), is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia,[10] it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, the Russian republic of Dagestan to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia and Turkey to the west, and Iran to the south.

The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed its independence from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic in 1918 and became the first secular democratic Muslim-majority state. In 1920, the country was incorporated into the Soviet Union as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic.[11][12] The modern Republic of Azerbaijan proclaimed its independence on 30 August 1991,[13] shortly before the dissolution of the USSR in the same year. In September 1991, the Armenian majority of the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region seceded to form the Republic of Artsakh.[14] The region and seven surrounding districts, internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan pending a solution to the status of the Nagorno-Karabakh through negotiations facilitated by the OSCE, became de facto independent with the end of the First Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994.[15][16][17][18] Following the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war, the seven districts and parts of Nagorno-Karabakh were returned to Azerbaijani control.[19]

Azerbaijan is a unitary semi-presidential[4] republic. It is one of six independent Turkic states and an active member of the Turkic Council and the TÜRKSOY community. Azerbaijan has diplomatic relations with 182 countries and holds membership in 38 international organizations,[20] including the United Nations (since 1992), the Council of Europe, the Non-Aligned Movement, the OSCE, and the NATO Partnership for Peace (PfP) program. It is one of the founding members of GUAM, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)[21] and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Azerbaijan also holds observer status in the World Trade Organization.[20][22]

While around 97% of the population is Muslim,[23] the Constitution of Azerbaijan does not declare an official religion and all major political forces in the country are secularist. Azerbaijan is a developing country and ranks 87th on the Human Development Index.[24] It has a high rate of economic development[25] and literacy,[26] as well as a low rate of unemployment.[27] However, the ruling party, the New Azerbaijan Party, in power since 1993, has been accused of authoritarian leadership and the deterioration of the country's human rights record, including increasing restrictions on civil liberties, particularly on press freedom and political repression.[28]
Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

  1. ^ "The Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan" (PDF). President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The Official Website of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  2. ^ The State Statistical Committee of the Azerbaijan Republic, The ethnic composition of the population according to the 2009 census. azstat.org
  3. ^ "Central Intelligence Agency". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 13 February 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  4. ^ a b LaPorte, Jody (2016). "Semi-presidentialism in Azerbaijan". In Elgie, Robert; Moestrup, Sophia (eds.). Semi-Presidentialism in the Caucasus and Central Asia. London: Palgrave Macmillan (published 15 May 2016). pp. 91–117. doi:10.1057/978-1-137-38781-3_4. ISBN 978-1-137-38780-6. LCCN 2016939393. OCLC 6039791976. LaPorte examines the dynamics of semi-presidentialism in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan's regime is a curious hybrid, in which semi-presidential institutions operate in the larger context of authoritarianism. The author compares formal Constitutional provisions with the practice of politics in the country, suggesting that formal and informal sources of authority come together to enhance the effective powers of the presidency. In addition to the considerable formal powers laid out in the Constitution, Azerbaijan's president also benefits from the support of the ruling party and informal family and patronage networks. LaPorte concludes by discussing the theoretical implications of this symbiosis between formal and informal institutions in Azerbaijan's semi-presidential regime.
  5. ^ "Azərbaycanda əhali sayı da artıb, boşanmalar da… – Rəsmi STATİSTİKA". modern.az. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". imf.org. International Monetary Fund. April 2019. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
  7. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  8. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  9. ^ Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.; Roach, Peter (2011). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-15253-2.
  10. ^ While often politically aligned with Europe, Azerbaijan is generally considered to be at least mostly in Southwest Asia geographically with its northern part bisected by the standard Asia-Europe divide, the Greater Caucasus. The United Nations classification of world regions places Azerbaijan in Western Asia; the CIA World Factbook places it mostly in Southwest Asia [1] and Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary places it in both; NationalGeographic.com, and Encyclopædia Britannica also place Georgia in Asia. Conversely, some sources place Azerbaijan in Europe such as Worldatlas.com.
  11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Swietochowski Borderland was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ Pipes, Richard (1997). The Formation of the Soviet Union: Communism and Nationalism 1917–1923 (2nd ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 218–220, 229. ISBN 978-0-674-30951-7.
  13. ^ King, David C. (2006). Azerbaijan. Marshall Cavendish. p. 27. ISBN 978-0761420118.
  14. ^ Zürcher, Christoph (2007). The Post-Soviet Wars: Rebellion, Ethnic Conflict, and Nationhood in the Caucasus ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). New York: New York University Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-0814797099.
  15. ^ Резолюция СБ ООН № 822 от 30 April 1993 года (in Russian). United Nations. Archived from the original on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  16. ^ Резолюция СБ ООН № 853 от 29 июля 1993 года (in Russian). United Nations. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  17. ^ Резолюция СБ ООН № 874 14 октября 1993 года (in Russian). United Nations. Archived from the original on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  18. ^ Резолюция СБ ООН № 884 от 12 ноября 1993 года (in Russian). United Nations. Archived from the original on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  19. ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (10 November 2020). "Facing Military Debacle, Armenia Accepts a Deal in Nagorno-Karabakh War" – via NYTimes.com.
  20. ^ a b "Azerbaijan: Membership of international groupings/organisations". British Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
  21. ^ Europa Publications Limited (1998). Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Routledge. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-85743-058-5.
  22. ^ "The non-aligned engagement". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
  23. ^ Cornell, Svante E. (2010). Azerbaijan Since Independence. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 165, 284. Indicative of general regional trends and a natural reemergence of previously oppressed religious identity, an increasingly popular ideological basis for the pursuit of political objectives has been Islam.... The government, for its part, has shown an official commitment to Islam by building mosques and respecting Islamic values... Unofficial Islamic groups sought to use aspects of Islam to mobilize the population and establish the foundations for a future political struggle.... Unlike Turkey, Azerbaijan does not have the powerful ideological legacy of secularism... the conflict with Armenia has bred frustration that is increasingly being answered by a combined Islamic and nationalist sentiment, especially among younger people... All major political forces are committed to secularism and are based, if anything, on a nationalist agenda.
  24. ^ "Human Development Index and its components" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme.
  25. ^ "Interactive Infographic of the World's Best Countries". Newsweek. 15 August 2010. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  26. ^ "Literacy rate among schoolchildren in Azerbaijan is 100% – UN report". News.Az. 28 October 2011.
  27. ^ "Employment statistics in Azerbaijan". The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
  28. ^ "Human Rights Watch: Azerbaijan". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 6 March 2014.