Michigan

Michigan
State of Michigan
Nickname(s): 
"The Great Lake(s) State",[1] "The Wolverine State", "The Mitten State", "Water (Winter) Wonderland"
Motto(s): 
Si quaeris peninsulam amoenam circumspice
(English: "If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look about you")
Anthem: "My Michigan"
Map of the United States with Michigan highlighted
Map of the United States with Michigan highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodMichigan Territory
Admitted to the UnionJanuary 26, 1837 (26th)
CapitalLansing
Largest cityDetroit
Largest metroMetro Detroit
Government
 • GovernorGretchen Whitmer (D)
 • Lieutenant GovernorGarlin Gilchrist (D)
LegislatureMichigan Legislature
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
JudiciaryMichigan Supreme Court
U.S. senatorsDebbie Stabenow (D)
Gary Peters (D)
U.S. House delegation7 Democrats
7 Republicans (list)
Area
 • Total96,716 sq mi (250,493 km2)
Area rank11th
Dimensions
 • Length456[2] mi (734 km)
 • Width386[2] mi (621 km)
Elevation
900 ft (270 m)
Highest elevation1,979 ft (603 m)
Lowest elevation571 ft (174 m)
Population
 (2010)
 • Total9,883,635[4]
 • Rank10th
 • Density174/sq mi (67.1/km2)
 • Density rank17th
 • Median household income
$54,909[5]
 • Income rank
34th
Demonym(s)Michigander, Michiganian, Yooper (for residents of the Upper Peninsula)[6]
Language
 • Official languageNone (English, de facto)
 • Spoken languageEnglish 91.11%
Spanish 2.93%
Arabic 1.04%
Other 4.92%
Time zones
most of stateUTC−05:00 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
4 U.P. counties (Gogebic, Iron, Dickinson, and Menominee)UTC−06:00 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−05:00 (CDT)
USPS abbreviation
MI
ISO 3166 codeUS-MI
Traditional abbreviationMich.
Latitude41°41′ N to 48°18′ N
Longitude82°7′ W to 90°25′ W
Websitewww.michigan.gov
Michigan state symbols
Living insignia
BirdAmerican robin (Turdus migratorius)
FishBrook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)
FlowerApple blossom (Malus domestica)
Wildflower: Dwarf lake iris (Iris lacustris)
MammalUnofficial: Wolverine (Gulo gulo luscus)
Game animal: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
ReptilePainted turtle (Chrysemys picta)
TreeEastern white pine (Pinus strobus)
Inanimate insignia
FossilMastodon (Mammut americanum)
GemstoneIsle Royale greenstone
RockPetoskey stone
SoilKalkaska sand
State route marker
Michigan state route marker
State quarter
Michigan quarter dollar coin
Released in 2004
Lists of United States state symbols

Michigan (/ˈmɪʃɪɡən/ (About this soundlisten)) is a state in the Great Lakes and Upper Midwest regions of the United States. Its name comes from the Ojibwe word mishigami, meaning "large water" or "large lake".[2][7] With a population of approximately 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous state, the 11th most extensive state by area, and the largest by area east of the Mississippi River.[b] Its capital is Lansing, and its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's most populous and largest metropolitan economies.

Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas. The Lower Peninsula is shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula (often called "the U.P.") is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile (8 km) channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan. The Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. Michigan has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bordered by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair.[8] It also has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds.[9]

The area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, and French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded the territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War. The area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as the 26th state, a free one. It soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular émigré destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; immigration from many European countries to Michigan was also the busiest at that time, especially for those who emigrated from Finland, Macedonia and the Netherlands.[10]

Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is widely known as the center of the U.S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies (whose headquarters are all in Metro Detroit). While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism due to its abundance of natural resources,[11][12] while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, forestry, agriculture, services, and high-tech industry.

  1. ^ "License plate facts" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  2. ^ a b c "Michigan in Brief: Information About the State of Michigan" (PDF). Department of History, Arts and Libraries. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 8, 2006. Retrieved November 28, 2006.
  3. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  4. ^ "Population, Population Change, and Estimated Components of Population Change: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 13, 2020.
  5. ^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
  6. ^ Hansen, Liane (September 27, 2009). "What Is a Yooper?". Weekend Edition Sunday. NPR. Archived from the original on August 21, 2013. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
  7. ^ "Freelang Ojibwe Dictionary". Freelang.net. Archived from the original on March 15, 2008. Retrieved March 24, 2008.
  8. ^ "My State: Michigan". NOAA Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management. Archived from the original on February 15, 2013. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
  9. ^ "Compilation of Databases on Michigan Lakes" (PDF). Michigan Department of Natural Resources. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 14, 2009. Retrieved April 18, 2009. Another unique code (Unique_ID) was previously assigned to all 70,542 polygons, including 5,526 islands, 35 streams and 64,980 lakes and ponds down to 0.008 acres (31.4 m2 , 338 ft2 ).
  10. ^ Ueda, Reed (2017). America's Changing Neighborhoods: An Exploration of Diversity through Places. Greenwood. ISBN 978-1-4408-2864-5.
  11. ^ Kandell, Jonathan. "The Wonderful Wilderness of Michigan's Upper Peninsula". Smithsonian. Archived from the original on March 1, 2019. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  12. ^ "An Environmental History of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan: An Outline". NMU Center for U.P. Studies. Archived from the original on March 1, 2019. Retrieved February 28, 2019.


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