Mountaineering

Mountain climbers ascending Mount Rainier looking at Little Tahoma Peak
A climber taking the final few steps onto the 6,160 m (20,210 ft)[1] summit of Imja Tse (Island Peak) in Nepal, 2004

Mountaineering, or alpinism,[2] is the set of activities that involves ascending mountains. Mountaineering-related activities include traditional outdoor climbing, skiing, and traversing via ferratas.[3][4][5][6] Indoor climbing, sport climbing and bouldering are also considered mountaineering by some.[7]

Unlike most sports, mountaineering lacks widely-applied formal rules, regulations, and governance; mountaineers adhere to a large variety of techniques and philosophies when climbing mountains.[8] Numerous local alpine clubs support mountaineers by hosting resources and social activities. A federation of alpine clubs, the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation (UIAA), is the International Olympic Committee-recognized world organization for mountaineering and climbing.[9]

  1. ^ "Nepal Mountaineering Association". web page. 2008. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
  2. ^ https://www.dictionary.com/browse/alpinism?s=t
  3. ^ Whitlock, W., Van Romer, K., & Becker, H. (1991). Nature Based Tourism: An Annotated Bibliography Clemson SC: Strom Thurmond Institute, Regional Development Group.
  4. ^ Pomfret, G. (2006). Mountaineering adventure tourists: a conceptual framework for research. Tourism Management, 27(1), 113–123. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2004.08.003
  5. ^ Beedie, P., & Hudson, S. (2003). Emergence of mountain-based adventure tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(3), 625–643.
  6. ^ Apollo, Michal (2017). "The true accessibility of mountaineering: The case of the High Himalaya". Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism. 17: 29–43. doi:10.1016/j.jort.2016.12.001.
  7. ^ Coalter, F., Dimeo, P., Morrow, S., & Taylor, J. (2010). The Benefits of Mountaineering and Mountaineering Related Activities: A Review of Literature. A Report to the Mountaineering Council of Scotland
  8. ^ Thomas Kublak (8 June 2014). Mountaineering Methodology - Part 1 - The Basics. Tomas Kublak - MMPublishing. ISBN 978-80-87715-12-3.
  9. ^ "UIAA Activities". UIAA. Archived from the original on 2011-05-11. Retrieved 2015-01-02.