Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12

Italian Republic

Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)
Anthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian)
"The Song of the Italians"
EU-Italy (orthographic projection).svg
Location of Italy (dark green)

– in Europe (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (light green)  –  [Legend]

and largest city
41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483
Official languagesItaliana
Native languagesSee full list
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary
constitutional republic
• President
Sergio Mattarella
Mario Draghi
Elisabetta Casellati
Roberto Fico
Senate of the Republic
Chamber of Deputies
17 March 1861
• Republic
2 June 1946
1 January 1948
• Founded the EEC (now EU)
1 January 1958
• Total
301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) (71st)
• Water (%)
1.24 (as of 2015)[3]
• 2020 estimate
Decrease 60,317,116[4] (23rd)
• 2011 census
Increase 59,433,744[5]
• Density
201.3/km2 (521.4/sq mi) (63rd)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Decrease $2.610 trillion[6] (13th)
• Per capita
Decrease $43,376[7] (29th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.106 trillion[8] (8th)
• Per capita
Increase $34,997[9] (25th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 33.4[10]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.892[11]
very high · 29th
CurrencyEuro ()b (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
yyyy-mm-dd (AD)[12]
Driving sideright
Calling code+39c
ISO 3166 codeIT
Internet TLD.itd
  1. German is co-official in South Tyrol and Friuli Venezia Giulia; French is co-official in the Aosta Valley; Slovene is co-official in the province of Trieste, the province of Gorizia, and Friuli Venezia Giulia; Ladin is co-official in South Tyrol, in Trentino and in other northern areas; Friulian is co-official in Friuli Venezia Giulia; Sardinian is co-official in Sardinia.[13][14]
  2. Before 2002, the Italian lira. The euro is accepted in Campione d'Italia but its official currency is the Swiss franc.[15]
  3. To call Campione d'Italia, it is necessary to use the Swiss code +41.
  4. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Italy (Italian: Italia [iˈtaːlja] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana [reˈpubːlika itaˈljaːna]),[16][17][18][19] is a country consisting of a continental part, delimited by the Alps, a peninsula and several islands surrounding it. Italy is located in Southern Europe,[20][21] and is also considered part of Western Europe.[22][23] A unitary parliamentary republic with Rome as its capital, the country covers a total area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial enclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in Tunisian waters (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the third-most populous member state of the European Union.

Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has historically been home to myriad peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout what is now modern-day Italy, the most predominant being the Indo-European Italic peoples who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era, Phoenicians and Carthaginians founded colonies mostly in insular Italy,[24] Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia of Southern Italy, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively. An Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which eventually became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People. The Roman Republic initially conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the Italian peninsula, eventually expanding and conquering parts of Europe, North Africa and Asia. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became a leading cultural, political and religious centre, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's law, technology, economy, art, and literature developed.[25][26] Italy remained the homeland of the Romans and the metropole of the empire, whose legacy can also be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments, Christianity and the Latin script.

During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured the fall of the Western Roman Empire and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century numerous rival city-states and maritime republics, mainly in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through trade, commerce and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.[27] These mostly independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East, often enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe; however, part of central Italy was under the control of the theocratic Papal States, while Southern Italy remained largely feudal until the 19th century, partially as a result of a succession of Byzantine, Arab, Norman, Angevin, Aragonese and other foreign conquests of the region.[28] The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Nevertheless, Italy's commercial and political power significantly waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean.[29] Centuries of foreign meddling and conquest and the rivalry and infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left Italy politically fragmented, and it was further conquered and divided among multiple foreign European powers over the centuries.

By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was almost entirely unified in 1861, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power.[30] From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy rapidly industrialised, mainly in the north, and acquired a colonial empire,[31] while the south remained largely impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora.[32] Despite being one of the four main allied powers in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of the Italian fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the Italian Resistance, the country abolished their monarchy, established a democratic Republic, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom, and became a highly developed country.[33]

Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries,[33][34][35] with the world's eighth-largest economy by nominal GDP (third in the European Union), sixth-largest national wealth and third-largest central bank gold reserve. It ranks very highly in life expectancy, quality of life,[36] healthcare,[37] and education. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs; it is both a regional power[38][39] and a great power,[40][41] and is ranked the world's eighth most-powerful military. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, the Group of Seven, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more. The source of many inventions and discoveries, the country has long been a global centre of art, music, literature, philosophy, science and technology, and fashion, and has greatly influenced and contributed to diverse fields including cinema, cuisine, sports, jurisprudence, banking and business.[42] As a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to the world's largest number of World Heritage Sites (55), and is the fifth-most visited country.

  1. ^ "Foreign citizens 2017". ISTAT. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
  2. ^ "The Global Religious Landscape" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
  3. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  4. ^ "Indicatori demografici". (in Italian). 20 February 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  5. ^ "La popolazione legale del 15° Censimento della popolazione". (in Italian). 19 December 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  6. ^,914,612,614,311,213,911,314,193,122,912,313,419,513,316,913,124,339,638,514,218,963,616,223,516,918,748,618,624,522,622,156,626,628,228,924,233,632,636,634,238,662,960,423,935,128,611,321,243,248,469,253,642,643,939,734,644,819,172,132,646,648,915,134,652,174,328,258,656,654,336,263,268,532,944,176,534,536,429,433,178,436,136,343,158,439,916,664,826,542,967,443,917,544,941,446,666,668,672,946,137,546,674,676,548,556,678,181,867,682,684,273,868,921,948,943,686,688,518,728,836,558,138,196,278,692,694,962,142,449,564,565,283,853,288,293,566,964,182,359,453,968,922,714,862,135,716,456,722,942,718,724,576,936,961,813,726,199,733,184,524,361,362,364,732,366,144,146,463,528,923,738,578,537,742,866,369,744,186,925,869,746,926,466,112,111,298,927,846,299,582,487,474,754,698,&s=NGDPD,PPPGDP,NGDPDPC,PPPPC,&sy=2010&ey=2021&ssm=0&scsm=1&scc=0&ssd=1&ssc=0&sic=1&sort=subject&ds=.&br=1
  7. ^,914,612,614,311,213,911,314,193,122,912,313,419,513,316,913,124,339,638,514,218,963,616,223,516,918,748,618,624,522,622,156,626,628,228,924,233,632,636,634,238,662,960,423,935,128,611,321,243,248,469,253,642,643,939,734,644,819,172,132,646,648,915,134,652,174,328,258,656,654,336,263,268,532,944,176,534,536,429,433,178,436,136,343,158,439,916,664,826,542,967,443,917,544,941,446,666,668,672,946,137,546,674,676,548,556,678,181,867,682,684,273,868,921,948,943,686,688,518,728,836,558,138,196,278,692,694,962,142,449,564,565,283,853,288,293,566,964,182,359,453,968,922,714,862,135,716,456,722,942,718,724,576,936,961,813,726,199,733,184,524,361,362,364,732,366,144,146,463,528,923,738,578,537,742,866,369,744,186,925,869,746,926,466,112,111,298,927,846,299,582,487,474,754,698,&s=NGDPD,PPPGDP,NGDPDPC,PPPPC,&sy=2010&ey=2021&ssm=0&scsm=1&scc=0&ssd=1&ssc=0&sic=1&sort=subject&ds=.&br=1
  8. ^,914,612,614,311,213,911,314,193,122,912,313,419,513,316,913,124,339,638,514,218,963,616,223,516,918,748,618,624,522,622,156,626,628,228,924,233,632,636,634,238,662,960,423,935,128,611,321,243,248,469,253,642,643,939,734,644,819,172,132,646,648,915,134,652,174,328,258,656,654,336,263,268,532,944,176,534,536,429,433,178,436,136,343,158,439,916,664,826,542,967,443,917,544,941,446,666,668,672,946,137,546,674,676,548,556,678,181,867,682,684,273,868,921,948,943,686,688,518,728,836,558,138,196,278,692,694,962,142,449,564,565,283,853,288,293,566,964,182,359,453,968,922,714,862,135,716,456,722,942,718,724,576,936,961,813,726,199,733,184,524,361,362,364,732,366,144,146,463,528,923,738,578,537,742,866,369,744,186,925,869,746,926,466,112,111,298,927,846,299,582,487,474,754,698,&s=NGDPD,PPPGDP,NGDPDPC,PPPPC,&sy=2010&ey=2021&ssm=0&scsm=1&scc=0&ssd=1&ssc=0&sic=1&sort=subject&ds=.&br=1
  9. ^,914,612,614,311,213,911,314,193,122,912,313,419,513,316,913,124,339,638,514,218,963,616,223,516,918,748,618,624,522,622,156,626,628,228,924,233,632,636,634,238,662,960,423,935,128,611,321,243,248,469,253,642,643,939,734,644,819,172,132,646,648,915,134,652,174,328,258,656,654,336,263,268,532,944,176,534,536,429,433,178,436,136,343,158,439,916,664,826,542,967,443,917,544,941,446,666,668,672,946,137,546,674,676,548,556,678,181,867,682,684,273,868,921,948,943,686,688,518,728,836,558,138,196,278,692,694,962,142,449,564,565,283,853,288,293,566,964,182,359,453,968,922,714,862,135,716,456,722,942,718,724,576,936,961,813,726,199,733,184,524,361,362,364,732,366,144,146,463,528,923,738,578,537,742,866,369,744,186,925,869,746,926,466,112,111,298,927,846,299,582,487,474,754,698,&s=NGDPD,PPPGDP,NGDPDPC,PPPPC,&sy=2010&ey=2021&ssm=0&scsm=1&scc=0&ssd=1&ssc=0&sic=1&sort=subject&ds=.&br=1
  10. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". Eurostat. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
  11. ^ "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  12. ^ Year-month-day also sometimes used, though rarely, mainly used for computing contexts. See Date and time notation in Italy.
  13. ^ "Legge Regionale 15 ottobre 1997, n. 26". Regione autonoma della Sardegna – Regione Autònoma de Sardigna.
  14. ^ "Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia - Comunità linguistiche regionali".
  15. ^ "Comune di Campione d'Italia". 14 July 2010. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
  16. ^ Search the agreements database Archived 29 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine Council of the European Union (retrieved 13 October 2013).
  17. ^ Italy: The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency (retrieved 13 October 2013).
  18. ^ "Country names". Archived from the original on 19 May 2011.
  19. ^ "BBC News – Italy profile – Facts". BBC News. 17 December 2015. Archived from the original on 25 September 2013.
  20. ^ "UNSD — Methodology".
  21. ^ "Italy – Facts, Geography, & History". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  23. ^ Italy is often grouped in Western Europe. Academic works describing Italy as a Western European country:
  24. ^ Carl Waldman; Catherine Mason (2006). Encyclopedia of European Peoples. Infobase Publishing. p. 586. ISBN 978-1-4381-2918-1. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  25. ^ Lazenby, John Francis (4 February 1998). Hannibal's War: A Military History of the Second Punic War. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-8061-3004-0 – via Internet Archive. Italy homeland of the Romans.
  26. ^ Maddison, Angus (20 September 2007). Contours of the World Economy 1-2030 AD: Essays in Macro-Economic History. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-922721-1 – via Google Books.
  27. ^ Sée, Henri. "Modern Capitalism Its Origin and Evolution" (PDF). University of Rennes. Batoche Books. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
  28. ^ Jepson, Tim (2012). National Geographic Traveler: Italy. National Geographic Books. ISBN 978-1-4262-0861-4.
  29. ^ Bouchard, Norma; Ferme, Valerio (2013). Italy and the Mediterranean: Words, Sounds, and Images of the Post-Cold War Era. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-34346-8. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  30. ^ "Unification of Italy". 4 April 2003. Archived from the original on 7 March 2009. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
  31. ^ "The Italian Colonial Empire". All Empires. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012. At its peak, just before WWII, the Italian Empire comprehended the territories of present time Italy, Albania, Rhodes, Dodecanese, Libya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, the majority of Somalia and the little concession of Tientsin in China
  32. ^ Jon Rynn. "WHAT IS A GREAT POWER?" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 April 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
  33. ^ a b "IMF Advanced Economies List. World Economic Outlook, April 2016, p. 148" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 April 2016.
  34. ^ CIA (2008). "Appendix B. International Organizations and Groups". World Factbook. Archived from the original on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 10 April 2008.
  35. ^ Country and Lending Groups. Archived 2 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine World Bank. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  36. ^ The Economist Intelligence Unit's quality-of-life index Archived 2 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Economist, 2005
  37. ^ "The World Health Organization's ranking of the world's health systems". Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  38. ^ Gabriele Abbondanza, Italy as a Regional Power: the African Context from National Unification to the Present Day (Rome: Aracne, 2016)
  39. ^ "Operation Alba may be considered one of the most important instances in which Italy has acted as a regional power, taking the lead in executing a technically and politically coherent and determined strategy." See Federiga Bindi, Italy and the European Union (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2011), p. 171.
  40. ^ Canada Among Nations, 2004: Setting Priorities Straight. McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP. 17 January 2005. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-7735-2836-9. Retrieved 13 June 2016. ("The United States is the sole world's superpower. France, Italy, Germany and the United Kingdom are great powers")
  41. ^ Sterio, Milena (2013). The right to self-determination under international law : "selfistans", secession and the rule of the great powers. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. p. xii (preface). ISBN 978-0-415-66818-7. Retrieved 13 June 2016. ("The great powers are super-sovereign states: an exclusive club of the most powerful states economically, militarily, politically and strategically. These states include veto-wielding members of the United Nations Security Council (United States, United Kingdom, France, China, and Russia), as well as economic powerhouses such as Germany, Italy and Japan.")
  42. ^ Michael Barone (2 September 2010). "The essence of Italian culture and the challenge of the global age". Council for Research in Values and philosophy. Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2012.