20 results found for: “random”.

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Randomness

In the common parlance, randomness is the apparent lack of pattern or predictability in events. A random sequence of events, symbols or steps often has...

Last Update: 2020-09-16T23:41:03Z Word Count : 3966 Text Page

Random variable

In probability and statistics, a random variable, random quantity, aleatory variable, or stochastic variable is described informally as a variable whose...

Last Update: 2020-08-21T07:59:54Z Word Count : 6306 Text Page

Random forest

Random forests or random decision forests are an ensemble learning method for classification, regression and other tasks that operate by constructing a...

Last Update: 2020-09-20T16:35:55Z Word Count : 5472 Text Page

Random House

Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world. It is part of Penguin Random House, which...

Last Update: 2020-09-20T09:46:53Z Word Count : 2310 Text Page

Random number generation

better than by a random chance. Random number generators can be true hardware random-number generators (HRNGS), which generate random numbers as a function...

Last Update: 2020-09-13T00:23:41Z Word Count : 4021 Text Page

Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM /ræm/) is a form of computer memory that can be read and changed in any order, typically used to store working data and machine...

Last Update: 2020-08-25T05:45:35Z Word Count : 5724 Text Page

Randomization

Randomization is the process of making something random; in various contexts this involves, for example: generating a random permutation of a sequence...

Last Update: 2019-11-11T15:49:24Z Word Count : 600 Text Page

Simple random sample

a simple random sample is a subset of individuals (a sample) chosen from a larger set (a population). Each individual is chosen randomly and entirely...

Last Update: 2020-08-02T15:46:19Z Word Count : 1443 Text Page

So Random!

So Random! is an American Disney Channel sketch comedy series that premiered on June 5, 2011. It was announced as an independent series after Demi Lovato...

Last Update: 2020-08-28T11:10:13Z Word Count : 3595 Text Page

Random walk

mathematics, a random walk is a mathematical object, known as a stochastic or random process, that describes a path that consists of a succession of random steps...

Last Update: 2020-09-03T21:09:53Z Word Count : 7698 Text Page

Fischer random chess

Fischer random chess, also known as Chess960, is a variation of the game of chess invented by former world chess champion Bobby Fischer. Fischer announced...

Last Update: 2020-09-15T04:28:55Z Word Count : 6347 Text Page

Random seed

A random seed (or seed state, or just seed) is a number (or vector) used to initialize a pseudorandom number generator. For a seed to be used in a pseudorandom...

Last Update: 2019-12-31T22:16:45Z Word Count : 239 Text Page

Random glucose test

Random glucose test (a.k.a. random blood glucose) is a blood sugar test taken from a non-fasting subject. This test, also called capillary blood glucose...

Last Update: 2019-11-30T05:57:05Z Word Count : 150 Text Page

Stochastic process

a stochastic or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a family of random variables. Historically, the random variables were associated...

Last Update: 2020-08-26T18:27:06Z Word Count : 17910 Text Page

Probability distribution

possible outcomes for an experiment. It is a mathematical description of a random phenomenon in terms of its sample space and the probabilities of events...

Last Update: 2020-09-20T10:36:38Z Word Count : 5605 Text Page

Random access

Random access (more precisely and more generally called direct access) is the ability to access an arbitrary element of a sequence in equal time or any...

Last Update: 2020-02-10T22:52:39Z Word Count : 547 Text Page

Random graph

In mathematics, random graph is the general term to refer to probability distributions over graphs. Random graphs may be described simply by a probability...

Last Update: 2020-07-08T06:21:25Z Word Count : 2368 Text Page

Random matrix

mathematical physics, a random matrix is a matrix-valued random variable—that is, a matrix in which some or all elements are random variables. Many important...

Last Update: 2020-09-09T10:30:28Z Word Count : 3560 Text Page

Normal distribution

distribution is a type of continuous probability distribution for a real-valued random variable. The general form of its probability density function is f ( x...

Last Update: 2020-09-17T01:50:46Z Word Count : 20332 Text Page

Randomized algorithm

A randomized algorithm is an algorithm that employs a degree of randomness as part of its logic. The algorithm typically uses uniformly random bits as...

Last Update: 2020-09-17T10:48:31Z Word Count : 3475 Text Page

Main result

Randomness

In the common parlance, randomness is the apparent lack of pattern or predictability in events. A random sequence of events, symbols or steps often has no order and does not follow an intelligible pattern or combination. Individual random events are by definition unpredictable, but since they often follow a probability distribution, the frequency of different outcomes over numerous events (or "trials") is predictable. For example, when throwing two dice, the outcome of any particular roll is unpredictable, but a sum of 7 will occur twice as often as 4. In this view, randomness is a measure of uncertainty of an outcome, rather than its haphazardness, and applies to concepts of chance, probability, and information entropy. According to Ramsey theory, ideal randomness is impossible especially for large structures. For example, professor Theodore Motzkin pointed out that "while disorder is more probable in general, complete disorder is impossible". Misunderstanding of this can lead to numerous conspiracy theories. Cristian S. Calude stated that: "given the impossibility of true randomness, the effort is directed towards studying degrees of randomness". It can be proven that there is infinite hierarchy (in terms of quality or strength) of forms of randomness.The fields of mathematics, probability, and statistics use formal definitions of randomness. In statistics, a random variable is an assignment of a numerical value to each possible outcome of an event space. This association facilitates the identification and the calculation of probabilities of the events. Random variables can appear in random sequences. A random process is a sequence of random variables whose outcomes do not follow a deterministic pattern, but follow an evolution described by probability distributions. These and other constructs are extremely useful in probability theory and the various applications of randomness. Randomness is most often used in statistics to signify well-defined statistical properties. Monte Carlo methods, which rely on random input (such as from random number generators or pseudorandom number generators), are important techniques in science, particularly in the field of computational science. By analogy, quasi-Monte Carlo methods use quasi-random number generators. Random selection, when narrowly associated with a simple random sample, is a method of selecting items (often called units) from a population where the probability of choosing a specific item is the proportion of those items in the population. For example, with a bowl containing just 10 red marbles and 90 blue marbles, a random selection mechanism would choose a red marble with probability 1/10. Note that a random selection mechanism that selected 10 marbles from this bowl would not necessarily result in 1 red and 9 blue. In situations where a population consists of items that are distinguishable, a random selection mechanism requires equal probabilities for any item to be chosen. That is, if the selection process is such that each member of a population, say research subjects, has the same probability of being chosen, then we can say the selection process is random.


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