10 results found for: “random”.

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Randomness

In the common parlance, randomness is the apparent lack of pattern or predictability in events. A random sequence of events, symbols or steps often has...

Last Update: 2019-11-21T04:37:42Z Word Count : 3880

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Fischer random chess

Fischer random chess, also known as Chess960, is a variation of the game of chess invented by former world chess champion Bobby Fischer. Fischer announced...

Last Update: 2020-04-05T23:57:57Z Word Count : 5985

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Random walk

A random walk is a mathematical object, known as a stochastic or random process, that describes a path that consists of a succession of random steps on...

Last Update: 2020-04-05T20:05:56Z Word Count : 7382

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Random number generation

chance. Random number generators can be true hardware random-number generators (HRNG), which generate genuinely random numbers, or pseudo-random number...

Last Update: 2020-03-28T19:50:19Z Word Count : 3913

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Random forest

Random forests or random decision forests are an ensemble learning method for classification, regression and other tasks that operate by constructing a...

Last Update: 2020-03-12T17:08:33Z Word Count : 5606

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Random House

Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world. It is part of Penguin Random House, which...

Last Update: 2020-04-07T00:50:30Z Word Count : 2236

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Random number

Random number may refer to: A number generated for, or part of, a set exhibiting statistical randomness. A random sequence obtained from a stochastic...

Last Update: 2019-12-13T17:37:00Z Word Count : 40

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Random variable

In probability and statistics, a random variable, random quantity, aleatory variable, or stochastic variable is described informally as a variable whose...

Last Update: 2020-03-26T21:31:42Z Word Count : 6311

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Randomization

Randomization is the process of making something random; in various contexts this involves, for example: generating a random permutation of a sequence...

Last Update: 2019-11-11T15:49:24Z Word Count : 600

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Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM /ræm/) is a form of computer memory that can be read and changed in any order, typically used to store working data and machine...

Last Update: 2020-02-16T21:20:39Z Word Count : 5710

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Main result

Randomness

In the common parlance, randomness is the apparent lack of pattern or predictability in events. A random sequence of events, symbols or steps often has no order and does not follow an intelligible pattern or combination. Individual random events are by definition unpredictable, but since they often follow a probability distribution, the frequency of different outcomes over numerous events (or "trials") is predictable. For example, when throwing two dice, the outcome of any particular roll is unpredictable, but a sum of 7 will occur twice as often as 4. In this view, randomness is a measure of uncertainty of an outcome, rather than its haphazardness, and applies to concepts of chance, probability, and information entropy. According to Ramsey theory, ideal randomness is impossible especially for large structures. For example, professor Theodore Motzkin pointed out that "while disorder is more probable in general, complete disorder is impossible". Misunderstanding of this can lead to numerous conspiracy theories.The fields of mathematics, probability, and statistics use formal definitions of randomness. In statistics, a random variable is an assignment of a numerical value to each possible outcome of an event space. This association facilitates the identification and the calculation of probabilities of the events. Random variables can appear in random sequences. A random process is a sequence of random variables whose outcomes do not follow a deterministic pattern, but follow an evolution described by probability distributions. These and other constructs are extremely useful in probability theory and the various applications of randomness. Randomness is most often used in statistics to signify well-defined statistical properties. Monte Carlo methods, which rely on random input (such as from random number generators or pseudorandom number generators), are important techniques in science, particularly in the field of computational science. By analogy, quasi-Monte Carlo methods use quasi-random number generators. Random selection, when narrowly associated with a simple random sample, is a method of selecting items (often called units) from a population where the probability of choosing a specific item is the proportion of those items in the population. For example, with a bowl containing just 10 red marbles and 90 blue marbles, a random selection mechanism would choose a red marble with probability 1/10. Note that a random selection mechanism that selected 10 marbles from this bowl would not necessarily result in 1 red and 9 blue. In situations where a population consists of items that are distinguishable, a random selection mechanism requires equal probabilities for any item to be chosen. That is, if the selection process is such that each member of a population, say research subjects, has the same probability of being chosen, then we can say the selection process is random.


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