Wikipedia

Wikipedia
An incomplete sphere made of large, white, jigsaw puzzle pieces. Each puzzle piece contains one glyph from a different writing system, with each glyph written in black.
The Wikipedia wordmark which displays the name Wikipedia, written in all caps. The W and the A are the same height and both are taller than the other letters, which are also all the same height.
The logo of Wikipedia, a globe featuring glyphs from various writing systems
Screenshot
Main page of the English Wikipedia
Main Page of the English Wikipedia on July 23, 2018
Type of site
Online encyclopedia
Available in285 languages
Country of originUnited States
OwnerWikimedia Foundation
Created byJimmy Wales
Larry Sanger[1]
URLwww.wikipedia.org Edit this at Wikidata
Alexa rankDecrease 13 (Global, February 2020)[2]
CommercialNo
RegistrationOptional[note 1]
Users>315,993 active users[note 2] and >88,314,030 registered users
1,145 administrators (English)
LaunchedJanuary 15, 2001 (2001-01-15)
Current statusActive
Content license
CC Attribution / Share-Alike 3.0
Most text is also dual-licensed under GFDL; media licensing varies
Written inLAMP platform[3]
OCLC number52075003

Wikipedia (/ˌwɪkɪˈpdiə/ (About this soundlisten) wik-ih-PEE-dee-ə or /ˌwɪkiˈpdiə/ (About this soundlisten) wik-ee-PEE-dee-ə) (abbreviation: "WP", not "Wiki" or "wiki")[4] is a multilingual online encyclopedia created and maintained as an open collaboration project[5] by a community of volunteer editors using a wiki-based editing system.[6] It is the largest and most popular general reference work on the World Wide Web,[7][8][9] and is one of the 20 most popular websites ranked by Alexa, as of March 2020.[10] It features exclusively free content and no commercial ads, and is owned and supported by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization funded primarily through donations.[11][12][13][14]

Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger.[15] Sanger coined its name,[16][17] as a blend of "wiki" (the Hawaiian word for "quick")[18] and "encyclopedia". Initially an English-language encyclopedia, versions of Wikipedia in other languages were quickly developed. With 6.1 million articles, the English Wikipedia is the largest of the more than 300 Wikipedia encyclopedias. Overall, Wikipedia comprises more than 52 million articles[19] attracting 1.5 billion unique visitors per month.[20][21]

In 2005, Nature published a peer review comparing 42 hard science articles from Encyclopædia Britannica and Wikipedia and found that Wikipedia's level of accuracy approached that of Britannica,[22] although critics suggested that it might not have fared so well in a similar study of a random sampling of all articles or one focused on social science or contentious social issues.[23][24] The following year, Time magazine stated that the open-door policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the biggest and possibly the best encyclopedia in the world, and was a testament to the vision of Jimmy Wales.[25]

Wikipedia has been criticized for exhibiting systemic bias, for presenting a mixture of "truth, half truth, and some falsehoods",[26] and for being subject to manipulation and spin in controversial topics.[27] Wikipedia has also been criticized for gender bias, particularly on its English-language site, where the dominant majority of editors are male. However, Edit-a-thons have been held to encourage female editors and increase the coverage of women's topics.[28][29] Facebook announced that by 2017 it would help readers detect fake news by suggesting links to related Wikipedia articles. YouTube announced a similar plan in 2018.[30]

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Sidener was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ "wikipedia.org Competitive Analysis, Marketing Mix and Traffic—Alexa". www.alexa.com. Retrieved March 19, 2020.
  3. ^ Chapman, Roger (September 6, 2011). "Top 40 Website Programming Languages". rogchap.com. Archived from the original on September 22, 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
  4. ^ Wikipedia:Don't abbreviate "Wikipedia" as "Wiki"!
  5. ^ Mark McNeil (October 4, 2011). "Wikipedia Makes A House Call To Mac". The Hamilton Spectator.
  6. ^ Poe, Marshall (September 2006). "The Hive". The Atlantic Monthly.
  7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Tancer was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Woodson was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ "comScore MMX Ranks Top 50 US Web Properties for August 2012". comScore. September 12, 2012. Archived from the original on August 31, 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
  10. ^ Cite error: The named reference Alexa siteinfo was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  11. ^ Dewey, Caitlin (December 2, 2015). "Wikipedia has a ton of money. So why is it begging you to donate yours?". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  12. ^ "Wikimedia pornography row deepens as Wales cedes rights—BBC News". BBC. May 10, 2010. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  13. ^ Vogel, Peter S. (October 10, 2012). "The Mysterious Workings of Wikis: Who Owns What?". Ecommerce Times. Archived from the original on February 22, 2020. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  14. ^ Mullin, Joe (January 10, 2014). "Wikimedia Foundation employee ousted over paid editing". Ars Technica. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  15. ^ Shin, Annys (January 5, 2017). "Wikipedia was born in 2001. And the world got a bit truthier". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  16. ^ Cite error: The named reference MiliardWho was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  17. ^ Cite error: The named reference J Sidener was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  18. ^ "Wiki". Hawaiian Dictionary (Revised and enlarged ed.). University of Hawaii Press. 1986.
  19. ^ "Wikipedia cofounder Jimmy Wales on 60 Minutes". CBS News. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  20. ^ Cite error: The named reference small screen was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  21. ^ "Wikistats - Statistics For Wikimedia Projects". stats.wikimedia.org. Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved March 21, 2020.
  22. ^ Cite error: The named reference GilesJ2005Internet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  23. ^ Reagle, pp. 165–166.
  24. ^ Orlowski, Andrew (December 16, 2005). "Wikipedia science 31% more cronky than Britannica's Excellent for Klingon science, though". The Register. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  25. ^ "The 2006 Time 100". Time. May 8, 2006. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
  26. ^ Cite error: The named reference EdwinBlack was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  27. ^ Cite error: The named reference Petrilli was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  28. ^ Curtis, Cara (2019). "This physicist has written over 500 biographies of women scientists on Wikipedia". thenextweb.com. The Next Web.
  29. ^ Wade, Jessica (2019). "This is why I've written 500 biographies of female scientists on Wikipedia". independent.co.uk. The Independent.
  30. ^ Cohen, Noam (April 7, 2018). "Conspiracy videos? Fake news? Enter Wikipedia, the 'good cop' of the Internet". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 14, 2018.


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