Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Māori)
Lambton Harbour
Cable car
Bowen House
The Bucket Fountain
National Library of New Zealand
Flag of Wellington
Coat of arms of Wellington
Coat of arms
Windy Wellington, Wellywood
Suprema a Situ[1]
English: Supreme by position
Wellington is located in New Zealand
Wellington is located in Oceania
Wellington (Oceania)
Wellington is located in Pacific Ocean
Wellington (Pacific Ocean)
Coordinates: 41°17′20″S 174°46′38″E / 41.28889°S 174.77722°E / -41.28889; 174.77722Coordinates: 41°17′20″S 174°46′38″E / 41.28889°S 174.77722°E / -41.28889; 174.77722
Country New Zealand
Territorial authoritiesWellington City
Lower Hutt City
Upper Hutt City
Porirua City
Settled by Europeans1839
Named forA. Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
NZ ParliamentHutt South
Ikaroa-Rāwhiti (Māori)
Te Tai Hauāuru (Māori)
Te Tai Tonga (Māori)
Wellington Central
 • MayorAndy Foster
 • MPs
 • Urban
303.67 km2 (117.25 sq mi)
 • Metro
1,388.83 km2 (536.23 sq mi)
Highest elevation
495 m (1,624 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
 (June 2020)[3]
 • Urban
 • Urban density710/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
 • Metro
 • Metro density310/km2 (810/sq mi)
 • Demonym
Time zoneUTC+12 (NZST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+13 (NZDT)
5010, 5011, 5012, 5013, 5014, 5016, 5018, 5019, 5022, 5024, 5026, 5028, 6011, 6012, 6021, 6022, 6023, 6035, 6037
Area code(s)04
Local iwiNgāti Toa Rangatira, Ngāti Raukawa, Te Āti Awa

Wellington (Māori: Te Whanganui-a-Tara [tɛ ˈfaŋanʉi a taɾa]) is the capital city of New Zealand. It is located at the south-western tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Remutaka Range. Wellington is the major population centre of the southern North Island, and is the administrative centre of the Wellington Region, which also includes the Kapiti Coast and the Wairarapa. It is the world's southernmost capital of a sovereign state.[4] Wellington features a temperate maritime climate, and is the world's windiest city by average wind speed.[5]

The position of Wellington as capital of New Zealand is not defined in legislation, but established by convention.[6] Its metropolitan area, considered the greatest extent of Wellington itself, comprises four local authorities: Wellington City, on the peninsula between Cook Strait and Wellington Harbour, contains the central business district; Porirua on Porirua Harbour to the north is notable for its large Māori and Pacific Island communities; Lower Hutt and Upper Hutt are largely suburban areas to the northeast, together known as the Hutt Valley. The Wellington urban area, which only includes urbanised areas within Wellington City, has a population of 215,100 residents as of June 2020.[3] The urban areas of the four local authorities have a combined population of 429,700 residents as of June 2020.[3]

As the nation's capital since 1865,[6] the New Zealand Government and Parliament, the Supreme Court, and most of the public service are based in the city. Architectural sights include the Old Government Buildings—one of the largest wooden buildings in the world—as well as the iconic Beehive, the executive wing of Parliament Buildings. Wellington is also home to several of the largest and oldest cultural institutions in the nation, such the National Archives, the National Library, the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, and numerous theatres. It plays host to many artistic and cultural organisations, including the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra and Royal New Zealand Ballet. One of the world's most liveable cities, the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranked Wellington 12th in the world, and was first in the world for both liveability and non-pollution by Deutsche Bank, from 2017–18.[7][8]

Wellington's economy is primarily service-based, with an emphasis on finance, business services, and government. It is the centre of New Zealand's film and special effects industries, and increasingly a hub for information technology and innovation,[9] with two public research universities. Wellington is one of New Zealand's chief seaports and serves both domestic and international shipping. The city is served by Wellington International Airport, the third busiest airport in the country. Wellington's transport network includes train and bus lines which reach as far as the Kapiti Coast and the Wairarapa, and ferries connect the city to the South Island.

Described by Lonely Planet in 2013 as "the coolest little capital in the world",[6][10] the global city[11][12] has grown from a bustling Māori settlement, to a remote colonial outpost, and from there to an Australasian capital experiencing a "remarkable creative resurgence".[13][14]

  1. ^ Thorns, David; Schrader, Ben (11 March 2010). "City history and people – Towns to cities". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  2. ^ "Urban Rural 2020 (generalised) – GIS | | GIS Map Data Datafinder Geospatial Statistics | Stats NZ Geographic Data Service". datafinder.stats.govt.nz. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  3. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference NZ_population_data_2018 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ Cite error: The named reference World Record was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ Karl Mathiesen (15 October 2015). "Where is the world's windiest city? Spoiler alert: it's not Chicago". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 July 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  6. ^ a b c Levine, Stephen (20 June 2012). "Capital city – Wellington, capital city". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 5 February 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  7. ^ "2014 Quality of Living Worldwide City Rankings – Mercer Survey". www.mercer.com. 19 February 2014. Archived from the original on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  8. ^ "Wellington named most liveable city for second year running". Stuff. Archived from the original on 23 June 2019. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  9. ^ Lim, Jason (29 November 2015). "Wellington Is Bigger On Tech And Innovation Than You Think". Forbes. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  10. ^ Noted. "How they saw us: 250 years of quotes about New Zealand". Noted. Archived from the original on 9 July 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
  11. ^ "Wellington is a Smart City of the future". iStart leading the way to smarter technology investment. Archived from the original on 9 July 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
  12. ^ "The World According to GaWC 2020". GaWC – Research Network. Globalization and World Cities. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  13. ^ "Huffington Post lauds Wellington's 'remarkable' creative resurgence". Stuff. Archived from the original on 9 July 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
  14. ^ "Wellington: New Zealand's creative capital". TNZ Media. Archived from the original on 9 July 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2019.