Thylacine

Thylacine[1]
Temporal range: PleistoceneHolocene, 2–0.0001 Ma[2]
Thylacinus.jpg
A pair of thylacines in the National Zoo in Washington, D.C., c. 1903

Extinct  (1936) (IUCN 3.1)[3]
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Marsupialia
Order: Dasyuromorphia
Family: Thylacinidae
Genus: Thylacinus
Species:
T. cynocephalus
Binomial name
Thylacinus cynocephalus
(Harris, 1808)[4]
ThylacineRangeMap.png
Historic thylacine range in Tasmania (in green)[5]
Synonyms
List
  • Didelphis cynocephala Harris, 1808[4]
  • Dasyurus cynocephalus Geoffroy, 1810[6]
  • Thylacinus harrisii Temminck, 1824[7]
  • Dasyurus lucocephalus Grant, 1831[8]
  • Thylacinus striatus Warlow, 1833[9]
  • Thylacinus communis Anon., 1859[10]
  • Thylacinus breviceps Krefft, 1868[11]
  • Thylacinus rostralis De Vis, 1893[12]

The thylacine (/ˈθləsn/ THY-lə-seen,[13] or /ˈθləsn/ THY-lə-syne,[14] also /ˈθləsɪn/;[15]) (Thylacinus cynocephalus) is an extinct carnivorous marsupial that was native to the Australian mainland and the islands of Tasmania and New Guinea.[16] It was the largest known carnivorous marsupial in the world prior to its extinction, evolving about 2 million years ago. The last known live animal was captured in 1930 in Tasmania. It is commonly known as the Tasmanian tiger (because of its striped lower back) or the Tasmanian wolf (because of its canid-like characteristics). Various Aboriginal Tasmanian names have been recorded, such as coorinna, kanunnah, cab-berr-one-nen-er, loarinna, laoonana, can-nen-ner and lagunta,[17][18] while kaparunina is used in the constructed language of Palawa kani.[19]

The thylacine was relatively shy and nocturnal, with the general appearance of a medium-to-large-size dog, except for its stiff tail and abdominal pouch similar to that of a kangaroo, and dark transverse stripes that radiated from the top of its back, reminiscent of a tiger. The thylacine was a formidable apex predator,[5] though exactly how large its prey animals were is disputed. Because of convergent evolution, it displayed an anatomy and adaptations similar to the tiger and wolf of the Northern Hemisphere, despite being unrelated. Its closest living relatives are the Tasmanian devil and the numbat. The thylacine was one of only two marsupials known to have a pouch in both sexes: the other (still extant) species is the water opossum from Central and South America. The pouch of the male thylacine served as a protective sheath, covering the external reproductive organs.

The thylacine had become locally extinct on both New Guinea and the Australian mainland before British settlement of the continent, but its last stronghold was on the island of Tasmania, along with several other endemic species, including the Tasmanian devil. Intensive hunting encouraged by bounties is generally blamed for its extinction, but other contributing factors may have been disease, the introduction of dogs, and human encroachment into its habitat.

  1. ^ Groves, C.P. (2005). "Order Dasyuromorphia". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ Piper, Katarzyna J. (2007). "Early Pleistocene mammals from the Nelson Bay local fauna, Portland, Victoria, Australia". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27 (2): 492–503. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2007)27[492:EPMFTN]2.0.CO;2.
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference IUCN was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Harris1808 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ a b Paddle (2000)
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Geoffroy1810 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Temminck1827 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Grant1831 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ Cite error: The named reference Warlow1933 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ Cite error: The named reference Anon1859 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Krefft1868 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ De Vis, C.W. (1894). "A thylacine of the earlier nototherian period in Queensland". Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 8: 443–447. Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  13. ^ Macquarie ABC Dictionary. The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. 2003. p. 1032. ISBN 978-1-876429-37-9.
  14. ^ "thylacine". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  15. ^ "thylacine". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. 30 May 2009.
  16. ^ "Thylacine". The Australian Museum. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  17. ^ "The Thylacine Museum – Introducing the Thylacine: What is a Thylacine?". NaturalWorlds. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  18. ^ Giddings, Lara; Bleathman, Bill (2020) [2011]. Duretto, Marco (ed.). "Kanunnah" (PDF). The Research Journal of the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery. 4: 1.
  19. ^ "Three Capes Track" (PDF). Tacinc.com.au.