Solomon Islands

Coordinates: 8°S 159°E / 8°S 159°E / -8; 159

Solomon Islands

Motto: "To Lead is to Serve"

Location of Solomon Islands
Capital
and largest city
Honiara
9°28′S 159°49′E / 9.467°S 159.817°E / -9.467; 159.817
Official languagesEnglish
Ethnic groups
(2009 Census)
Religion
(2016)[3]
Demonym(s)Solomon Islander
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
David Vunagi
Manasseh Sogavare
LegislatureNational Parliament
Independence
• from the United Kingdom
7 July 1978
Area
• Total
28,400 km2 (11,000 sq mi) (139th)
• Water (%)
3.2%
Population
• 2018 estimate
652,857[4][5] (167th)
• Density
18.1/km2 (46.9/sq mi) (200th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$1.479 billion[6]
• Per capita
$2,307[6]
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$1.511 billion[6]
• Per capita
$2,357[6]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.567[7]
medium · 151st
CurrencySolomon Islands dollar (SBD)
Time zoneUTC+11
Driving sideleft
Calling code+677
ISO 3166 codeSB
Internet TLD.sb

Solomon Islands is a sovereign state[8][9] consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania, to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu. It has a land area of 28,400 square kilometres (11,000 sq mi), and a population of 652,858.[10] Its capital, Honiara, is located on the island of Guadalcanal. The country takes its name from the Solomon Islands archipelago, which is a collection of Melanesian islands that also includes the North Solomon Islands (a part of Papua New Guinea), but excludes outlying islands, such as the Santa Cruz Islands and Rennell and Bellona.

The islands have been settled since at least some time between 30,000 and 28,800 BC, with later waves of migrants, notably the Lapita people, mixing and producing the modern indigenous Solomon Islanders population. In 1568, the Spanish navigator Álvaro de Mendaña was the first European to visit them, naming them the Islas Salomón.[11] Mendaña returned decades later, in 1595, and another Spanish expedition, led by Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, visited the Solomons in 1606. Britain defined its area of interest in the Solomon Islands archipelago in June 1893, when Captain Gibson R.N., of HMS Curacoa, declared the southern Solomon Islands a British protectorate.[12][13] During World War II, the Solomon Islands campaign (1942–1945) saw fierce fighting between the United States, Commonwealth forces and the Empire of Japan, including the Battle of Guadalcanal.

The official name of the then-British administration was changed from the British Solomon Islands Protectorate to the Solomon Islands in 1975, and self-government was achieved the following year. Independence was obtained, and the name changed to just "Solomon Islands" (without the definite article), in 1978. At independence, Solomon Islands became a constitutional monarchy. The Queen of Solomon Islands is Elizabeth II, represented by the Governor-General.

  1. ^ "Solomon Islands National Anthem Lyrics". Lyrics on Demand. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  2. ^ "National Parliament of Solomon Islands Daily Hansard: First Meeting – Eighth Session Tuesday 9th May 2006" (PDF). www.parliament.gov.sb. 2006. p. 12. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  3. ^ http://www.globalreligiousfutures.org/countries/solomon-islands#/?affiliations_religion_id=11&affiliations_year=2010&region_name=All%20Countries&restrictions_year=2016
  4. ^ ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  5. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d "Solomon Islands". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  7. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  8. ^ "Solomon Islands". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  9. ^ "Definition of Solomon Islands". Dictionary.com. 20 June 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  10. ^ "Population, total - Solomon Islands | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  11. ^ "Alvaro de Mendaña de Neira, 1542?–1595". Princeton University Library. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
  12. ^ Lawrence, David Russell (October 2014). "Chapter 6 The British Solomon Islands Protectorate: Colonialism without capital" (PDF). The Naturalist and his "Beautiful Islands": Charles Morris Woodford in the Western Pacific. ANU Press. ISBN 9781925022032.
  13. ^ Commonwealth and Colonial Law by Kenneth Roberts-Wray, London, Stevens, 1966. P. 897