Phase-shift oscillator

A phase-shift oscillator is a linear electronic oscillator circuit that produces a sine wave output. It consists of an inverting amplifier element such as a transistor or op amp with its output fed back to its input through a phase-shift network consisting of resistors and capacitors in a ladder network. The feedback network 'shifts' the phase of the amplifier output by 180 degrees at the oscillation frequency to give positive feedback.[1] Phase-shift oscillators are often used at audio frequency as audio oscillators.

The filter produces a phase shift that increases with frequency. It must have a maximum phase shift of more than 180 degrees at high frequencies so the phase shift at the desired oscillation frequency can be 180 degrees. The most common phase-shift network cascades three identical resistor-capacitor stages that produce a phase shift of zero at low frequencies and 270° at high frequencies.