Perth

Perth
Western Australia
Perth-skyline.jpg
Perth's skyline viewed from South Perth
Perth is located in Australia
Perth
Perth
Coordinates31°57′8″S 115°51′32″E / 31.95222°S 115.85889°E / -31.95222; 115.85889Coordinates: 31°57′8″S 115°51′32″E / 31.95222°S 115.85889°E / -31.95222; 115.85889
Population2,125,114 (2020)[1] (4th)
 • Density331.1230/km2 (857.605/sq mi)
Established4 June 1829
Area6,417.9 km2 (2,478.0 sq mi)(GCCSA)[2]
Time zoneAWST (UTC+08:00)
Location
State electorate(s)Perth (and 41 others)[7]
Federal Division(s)Perth (and 10 others)
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
24.8 °C
77 °F
12.8 °C
55 °F
730.9 mm
28.8 in

Perth (/ˈpɜːrθ/ (About this soundlisten)) is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia (WA). It is Australia's fourth-most populous city, with a population of 2.1 million living in Greater Perth in 2018.[1] Perth is part of the South West Land Division of Western Australia, with most of the metropolitan area on the Swan Coastal Plain between the Indian Ocean and the Darling Scarp. The city has expanded outward from the original British settlements on the Swan River, upon which the city's central business district and port of Fremantle are situated. Perth city is located on land on which the Whadjuk Nyoongar, the Aboriginal people of the south west of Western Australia, have lived for at least 38,000 years.

Captain James Stirling founded Perth in 1829 as the administrative centre of the Swan River Colony. It was named after the town of Perth, Scotland, due to the influence of Stirling's patron Sir George Murray, who had connections with the area. It gained city status in 1856, although the Perth City Council currently governs only a small area around the central business district. The city's population increased substantially as a result of the Western Australian gold rushes in the late 19th century. It has grown steadily since World War II due to a high net migration rate. Post-war immigrants were predominantly from Britain and Southern Europe, while more recent arrivals have led to a large population of Asian descent. Several mining booms in other parts of Western Australia in the late 20th and early 21st centuries saw Perth become the regional headquarters for large mining operations.

Perth contains a number of important public buildings as well as various historic sites. Notable government buildings include Parliament House, Government House, the Supreme Court Buildings and the Perth Mint. The city is served by Fremantle Harbour and Perth Airport. It was a naval base for the Allies during World War II and the Royal Australian Navy's Fleet Base West is located on Garden Island. All five of Western Australia's universities are based in Perth. The city has been ranked among the world's most liveable cities and was classified by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network in 2020 as a Beta global city.[8]

Perth is divided into 30 local government areas and over 250 suburbs, with the metropolitan boundaries stretching from Two Rocks in the north to Singleton in the south, and east inland to The Lakes. Outside of the central business district, important urban centres within the metropolitan area include Armadale, Fremantle, Joondalup, Midland and Rockingham. Most of those were originally established as separate settlements and retained a distinct identity after being subsumed into the wider metropolitan area. Mandurah, Western Australia's second-largest city, forms a conurbation with Perth along the coast, though for most purposes it is still considered a separate city.

  1. ^ a b "3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2019–20". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 30 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2021. ERP at 30 June 2020.
  2. ^ "Greater Perth: Basic Community Profile" (xls). 2011 Census Community Profiles. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 28 March 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
  3. ^ "Great Circle Distance between PERTH and ADELAIDE". Geoscience Australia. March 2004.
  4. ^ "Great Circle Distance between PERTH and DARWIN CITY". Geoscience Australia. March 2004.
  5. ^ "Great Circle Distance between PERTH and MELBOURNE". Geoscience Australia. March 2004.
  6. ^ "Great Circle Distance between PERTH and SYDNEY". Geoscience Australia. March 2004.
  7. ^ "2011 Electoral Boundaries". State of Western Australia – Office of the Electoral Distribution Commissioners. 2014. Archived from the original on 27 February 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  8. ^ "The World According to GaWC 2020". GaWC - Research Network. Globalization and World Cities. Retrieved 31 August 2020.