Nine-volt battery

Vintage PP3-size 9-volt batteries
Size comparison of batteries: D, C, AA, AAA, AAAA, PP3 (9-volt)

The nine-volt battery, or 9-volt battery, is a common size of battery that was introduced for the early transistor radios. It has a rectangular prism shape with rounded edges and a polarized snap connector at the top. This type is commonly used in smoke detectors, gas detectors, clocks, walkie-talkies, electric guitars and effects units.

The nine-volt battery format is commonly available in primary carbon-zinc and alkaline chemistry, in primary lithium iron disulfide, and in rechargeable form in nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion. Mercury-oxide batteries of this format, once common, have not been manufactured in many years due to their mercury content. Designations for this format include NEDA 1604 and IEC 6F22 (for zinc-carbon) or MN1604 6LR61 (for alkaline). The size, regardless of chemistry, is commonly designated PP3—a designation originally reserved solely for carbon-zinc, or in some countries, E or E-block.[1]

Most nine-volt alkaline batteries are constructed of six individual 1.5 V LR61 cells enclosed in a wrapper.[2] These cells are slightly smaller than LR8D425 AAAA cells and can be used in their place for some devices, even though they are 3.5 mm shorter. Carbon-zinc types are made with six flat cells in a stack, enclosed in a moisture-resistant wrapper to prevent drying. Primary lithium types are made with three cells in series.[3]

9-volt batteries accounted for 4% of alkaline primary battery sales in the United States in 2007, and 2% of primary battery sales and 2% of secondary battery sales in Switzerland in 2008.[4][5]

  1. ^ "AP300 NiMH 9 Volt 300mAh". AccuPower. Archived from the original on 6 February 2018. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  2. ^ IEC 60086-2-2011 §7.6.1.12
  3. ^ Lee, Arthur (2002-06-28). "Preliminary Test Results on Lithium Batteries Used in Residential Smoke Alarms" (PDF). CPSC.gov. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-02-23. Retrieved 2016-07-05.
  4. ^ "Life Cycle Impacts of Alkaline Batteries with a Focus on End-of-Life" (PDF). EPBAEurope.net. EPBA-EU. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03.
  5. ^ "INOBAT 2008 Statistics" (PDF). INOBAT.ch. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-25.