New Jersey

New Jersey
State of New Jersey
Nickname(s): 
The Garden State[1]
Motto(s): 
Liberty and prosperity
Map of the United States with New Jersey highlighted
Map of the United States with New Jersey highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodProvince of New Jersey
Admitted to the UnionDecember 18, 1787 (3rd)
CapitalTrenton
Largest cityNewark
Largest metroGreater New York
Government
 • GovernorPhil Murphy (D)
 • Lieutenant GovernorSheila Oliver (D)
LegislatureNew Jersey Legislature
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseGeneral Assembly
JudiciarySupreme Court of New Jersey
U.S. senatorsBob Menendez (D)
Cory Booker (D)
U.S. House delegation10 Democrats
2 Republicans (list)
Area
 • Total8,722.58 sq mi (22,591.38 km2)
 • Land7,354.22[2] sq mi (19,047.34 km2)
 • Water1,368.36 sq mi (3,544.04 km2)  15.7%
Area rank47th
Dimensions
 • Length170 mi (273 km)
 • Width70 mi (112 km)
Elevation
250 ft (80 m)
Highest elevation1,803 ft (549.6 m)
Lowest elevation
(Atlantic Ocean[3])
0 ft (0 m)
Population
 (2019[5])
 • Total8,882,190
 • Rank11th
 • Density1,210.10/sq mi (467/km2)
 • Density rank1st
 • Median household income
$79,363[5]
 • Income rank
3rd
Demonym(s)New Jerseyan (official),[6] New Jerseyite[7][8]
Language
 • Official languageNone
 • Spoken language
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
USPS abbreviation
NJ
ISO 3166 codeUS-NJ
Traditional abbreviationN.J.
Latitude38°56′ N to 41°21′ N
Longitude73°54′ W to 75°34′ W
Websitenj.gov
New Jersey state symbols
Flag of New Jersey.svg
Seal of New Jersey.svg
Living insignia
BirdEastern goldfinch[10]
FishBrook trout[11]
FlowerViola sororia[12]
InsectWestern honey bee[13]
MammalHorse[14]
TreeQuercus rubra (northern red oak),[15] dogwood (memorial tree)[15]
Inanimate insignia
ColorsBuff and blue
   
Folk danceSquare dance[16]
FoodNorthern highbush blueberry (state fruit)[17]
FossilHadrosaurus foulkii[18]
SoilDowner[19]
State route marker
New Jersey state route marker
State quarter
New Jersey quarter dollar coin
Released in 1999
Lists of United States state symbols

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean; on the west by the Delaware River and Pennsylvania; and on the southwest by Delaware Bay and the State of Delaware. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 8,882,190 residents as of 2019 and an area of 8,722.58 square miles, making it the most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. The capital is Trenton, while the largest city is Newark. All but one county in New Jersey (Warren County)[20] lie within the combined statistical areas of New York City or Philadelphia; consequently, the state's largest metropolitan area falls within Greater New York.

New Jersey was first inhabited by Native Americans for at least 2,800 years, with the Lenape being the dominant group by the time Europeans arrived in the early 17th century. Dutch and the Swedish colonists founded the first European settlements in the state.[21] The English later seized control of the region,[22] naming it the Province of New Jersey—after the largest of the Channel Islands, Jersey—and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.[23] New Jersey was the site of several important battles during the American Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, factories in the "Big Six" cities of Camden, Paterson, Newark, Trenton, Jersey City, and Elizabeth helped drive the nation's Industrial Revolution.[24] New Jersey's central location in the Northeast megalopolis fueled its rapid growth and suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. At the turn of the 21st century, the state's economy increasingly diversified, while its multicultural populace began reverting toward more urban settings within the state,[25][26] outpacing the growth in suburbs since 2008.[27]

As of 2020, New Jersey was home to the highest number of millionaires per capita of all U.S. states, with 9.76% of households—more than 323,000 of 3.3 million statewide—meeting the criteria.[28] Based on 2017 data, it was the second-wealthiest U.S. state by median household income.[29] New Jersey's public school system consistently ranks at or among the top among all fifty U.S. states.[30][31][32][33]

  1. ^ The Garden State and Other New Jersey State Nicknames Archived September 2, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Robert Lupp, New Jersey Reference Services, New Jersey State Library, October 12, 1994.
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference NJCensusfacts was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  4. ^ Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  5. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference PopEstUS was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ "GPO Style Manual 2008" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 21, 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
  7. ^ "New Jersey—Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on May 31, 2013. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  8. ^ "Definition of New Jerseyite". Dictionary.reference.com. Archived from the original on June 22, 2013. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
  9. ^ "Language spoken at home by ability to speak English for the population 5 years and over—2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
  10. ^ "New Jersey State Bird". The Official Web Site for The State of New Jersey. The State of New Jersey. Archived from the original on March 25, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
  11. ^ "The New Jersey State Fish". The Official Web Site for The State of New Jersey. The State of New Jersey. Archived from the original on August 9, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference NJFlower was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ Cite error: The named reference NJInsect was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ Cite error: The named reference NJAnimal was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  15. ^ a b "The New Jersey State Trees". The Official Web Site for The State of New Jersey. The State of New Jersey. Archived from the original on March 10, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
  16. ^ Cite error: The named reference NJDance was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  17. ^ Cite error: The named reference NJBerry was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  18. ^ Cite error: The named reference NJDino was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  19. ^ "New Jersey State Soil—Downer". Natural Resources Conservation Service. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on August 19, 2014. Retrieved August 17, 2014.
  20. ^ "QCEW County-MSA-CSA Crosswalk". U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
  21. ^ "NJ History Outline". Usgennet.org. Archived from the original on April 30, 2010. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
  22. ^ "Encyclopedia—New Jersey History". 2000–2011 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease. Archived from the original on September 30, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
  23. ^ "New Jersey". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on October 29, 2009. Retrieved July 25, 2010 – via Webcitation.org.
  24. ^ Mansnerus, Laura (September 26, 1999). "New Jersey's Cities: Sad Urban Presence Encircled by Wealth". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  25. ^ Dave Sheingold (March 24, 2016). "Bergen County leads population growth trend, halts flow to other parts of N.J". Archived from the original on March 24, 2016. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
  26. ^ Kathleen Lynn (October 25, 2015). "What's the future for suburban office space?". Archived from the original on October 26, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  27. ^ Chrispher Maag (April 15, 2016). "Population rebounds around train stations in N.J". Archived from the original on April 18, 2016. Retrieved April 15, 2016.
  28. ^ Burrows, Dan. "Millionaires in America 2020: All 50 States Ranked How many millionaires are in America and where do they live? The states with the highest number of millionaire households just might surprise you.", Kiplinger, May 28, 2020. Accessed November 23, 2020. "Millionaire households: 323,443 Total households: 3,312,916 Concentration of millionaires: 9.76%... For the second year in a row, New Jersey is the top spot for millionaires per capita in the U.S. Like Connecticut, New Jersey has a high concentration of millionaires largely thanks to its proximity to New York City."
  29. ^ "Household Income: 2017" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. September 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 19, 2018. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
  30. ^ Kelly Heyboer (September 2, 2020). "N.J. has the best public schools in the nation – again, ranking says". New Jersey On-Line LLC. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  31. ^ Kelly Heyboer (September 4, 2019). "N.J. has the No. 1 public schools in the nation, ranking says". New Jersey On-Line LLC. Archived from the original on September 4, 2019. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
  32. ^ Alex Napoliello (August 4, 2014). "New Jersey has the best school systems in U.S., report says". New Jersey On-Line LLC. Archived from the original on April 24, 2019. Retrieved September 5, 2019.
  33. ^ "The 10 Best U.S. States for Education—2. New Jersey". U.S. News & World Report. February 27, 2018. Archived from the original on May 3, 2018. Retrieved May 2, 2018.