Lithuania

Republic of Lithuania

Lietuvos Respublika  (Lithuanian)
Anthem: Tautiška giesmė
(English: "National Hymn")
EU-Lithuania.svg
Lithuania in the world (W3).svg
Location of Lithuania (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Vilnius
54°41′N 25°19′E / 54.683°N 25.317°E / 54.683; 25.317
Official languagesLithuanian[1]
Ethnic groups
(census 2019[2])
Religion
(2016[3])
Demonym(s)Lithuanian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic[4][5][6][7]
• President
Gitanas Nausėda
Ingrida Šimonytė
Viktorija Čmilytė-Nielsen
LegislatureSeimas
Formation
9 March 1009
1236
• Coronation of Mindaugas
6 July 1253
2 February 1386
• Commonwealth created
1 July 1569
24 October 1795
16 February 1918
11 March 1990
• Admitted to NATO
29 March 2004
• Joined the EU
1 May 2004
Area
• Total
65,300 km2 (25,200 sq mi) (121st)
• Water (%)
1.98 (as of 2015)[8]
Population
• 2020 estimate
Decrease 2,793,694[9] (140th)
• Density
43/km2 (111.4/sq mi) (138th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
$107 billion[10] (83rd)
• Per capita
$41,288[10] (34th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
$56 billion[10] (80th)
• Per capita
$22,752[10] (38th)
Gini (2019)Positive decrease 35.4[11]
medium
HDI (2019)Increase 0.882[12]
very high · 34th
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (EEST)
Date formatyyyy-mm-dd (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+370
ISO 3166 codeLT
Internet TLD.lta
Website
lietuva.lt
  1. Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.

Coordinates: 55°N 24°E / 55°N 24°E / 55; 24

Lithuania (/ˌlɪθjuˈniə/ (About this soundlisten) LITH-ew-AY-nee-ə;[13] Lithuanian: Lietuva [lʲɪɛtʊˈvɐ]), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of Europe.[a] It is one of the Baltic states, and lies on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, to the southeast of Sweden and the east of Denmark, with Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia to the southwest. Lithuania covers an area of 65,300 km2 (25,200 sq mi), with a population of 2.7 million. Its capital and largest city is Vilnius; other major cities are Kaunas and Klaipėda. Lithuanians belong to the ethno-linguistic group of the Balts, and speak Lithuanian; one of only two living Baltic languages.

For centuries the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by various Baltic tribes. In the 1230s, the Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas and the Kingdom of Lithuania was created on 6 July 1253. In the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the largest country in Europe;[19] present-day Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, and parts of Poland and Russia were all territories of the Grand Duchy. With the Lublin Union of 1569, Lithuania and Poland formed a voluntary two-state personal union, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighbouring countries dismantled it in 1772–1795, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory. As World War I neared its end, Lithuania's Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, to found the modern Republic of Lithuania. In the Second World War, Lithuania was first occupied by the Soviet Union and then by Nazi Germany. As World War II neared an end and the Germans retreated, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania. On 11 March 1990, a year before the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union, Lithuania became the first Baltic state to proclaim its independence, under the State of Lithuania.[20]

Lithuania is a developed country, with a high income advanced economy; ranking very high in the Human Development Index. It ranks favourably in terms of civil liberties, press freedom and internet freedom. However, Lithuania has experienced a gradual population decline since the 1990s, with social issues such as income inequality and high suicide rate remaining a problem. Lithuania is a member of the European Union, the Council of Europe, eurozone, the Nordic Investment Bank, Schengen Agreement, NATO and OECD. It participates in the Nordic-Baltic Eight (NB8) regional co-operation format.

  1. ^ "Lithuania's Constitution of 1992 with Amendments through 2019" (PDF). Constitute Project.
  2. ^ "Ethnicity, mother tongue and religion". Official Statistics Portal. Statistics Lithuania. 12 December 2019. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  3. ^ "Pope Francis to visit the three Baltic countries – only one of which is majority Catholic".
  4. ^ Kulikauskienė, Lina (2002). Lietuvos Respublikos Konstitucija [The Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania] (in Lithuanian). Native History, CD. ISBN 978-9986-9216-7-7.
  5. ^ Veser, Ernst (23 September 1997). "Semi-Presidentialism-Duverger's Concept – A New Political System Model" (PDF) (in English and Chinese). Department of Education, School of Education, University of Cologne. pp. 39–60. Retrieved 23 August 2017. Duhamel has developed the approach further: He stresses that the French construction does not correspond to either parliamentary or the presidential form of government, and then develops the distinction of 'système politique' and 'régime constitutionnel'. While the former comprises the exercise of power that results from the dominant institutional practice, the latter is the totality of the rules for the dominant institutional practice of the power. In this way, France appears as 'presidentialist system' endowed with a 'semi-presidential regime' (1983: 587). By this standard he recognizes Duverger's pléiade as semi-presidential regimes, as well as Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and Lithuania (1993: 87).
  6. ^ Shugart, Matthew Søberg (September 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies. United States: University of California, San Diego. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
  7. ^ Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). French Politics. Palgrave Macmillan Journals. 3 (3): 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087. Retrieved 23 August 2017. A pattern similar to the French case of compatible majorities alternating with periods of cohabitation emerged in Lithuania, where Talat-Kelpsa (2001) notes that the ability of the Lithuanian president to influence government formation and policy declined abruptly when he lost the sympathetic majority in parliament.
  8. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  9. ^ "Pradžia – Oficialiosios statistikos portalas". osp.stat.gov.lt.
  10. ^ a b c d "Lithuania". International Monetary Fund.
  11. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
  12. ^ "2020 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  13. ^ Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-15253-2.
  14. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division- Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)-Geographic Regions". Unstats.un.org.
  15. ^ "7206 Europe". Eurovoc. European Union. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  16. ^ Cite error: The named reference CIA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  17. ^ "Lithuania". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  18. ^ Bershidsky, Leonid (10 January 2017). "Why the Baltics Want to Move to Another Part of Europe". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  19. ^ Cite error: The named reference Bideleux was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  20. ^ "Lithuania breaks away from the Soviet Union". Theguardian.com. London: Guardian Media Group. 12 March 1990. Retrieved 7 June 2018. Lithuania last night became the first republic to break away from the Soviet Union, by proclaiming the restoration of its pre-war independence. The newly-elected parliament, 'reflecting the people's will,' decreed the restoration of 'the sovereign rights of the Lithuanian state, infringed by alien forces in 1940,' and declared that from that moment Lithuania was again an independent state


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