Jasenovac concentration camp

Coordinates: 45°16′54″N 16°56′6″E / 45.28167°N 16.93500°E / 45.28167; 16.93500

Jasenovac concentration camp
Concentration and extermination camp
Jasenovac prisoners enter the camp.jpg
Entering prisoners are robbed by Ustaše guards
Jasenovac concentration camp is located in NDH
Jasenovac concentration camp
Location of Jasenovac concentration camp within NDH
Other namesLogor Jasenovac / Логор Јасеновац, pronounced [lôːgor jasěnoʋat͡s]
LocationJasenovac, Independent State of Croatia (NDH; present-day Republic of Croatia)
Operated byUstaše Supervisory Service (UNS)
First builtAugust 1941
OperationalAugust 1941 – 21 April 1945
InmatesMainly Serbs, Jews, and Roma; also some Croatian and Bosnian Muslim political dissidents
Killed77,000–100,000[1][2][3] consisting of:[2]
Serbs 45,000–52,000
Roma 15,000–20,000
Jews 12,000–20,000
Croats and Bosnian Muslims 5,000–12,000
Liberated byYugoslav Partisans
Notable inmatesList of prisoners of Jasenovac

Jasenovac was a concentration and extermination camp established in Slavonia by the authorities of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II. The concentration camp, one of the ten largest in Europe, was established and operated by the governing Ustaše regime, which was the only quisling regime in occupied Europe to operate extermination camps solely on their own for Jews and other ethnic groups.[4]

It was established in August 1941 in marshland at the confluence of the Sava and Una rivers near the village of Jasenovac, and was dismantled in April 1945. It was "notorious for its barbaric practices and the large number of victims".[5] Unlike German Nazi-run camps, Jasenovac "specialized in one-on-one violence of a particularly brutal kind"[6] and prisoners were primarily murdered manually with the use of blunt objects such as knives, hammers and axes.[7]

In Jasenovac the majority of victims were ethnic Serbs (as part of the Genocide of the Serbs); others were Jews (The Holocaust), Roma (The Porajmos), and some political dissidents. Jasenovac was a complex of five subcamps[8] spread over 210 km2 (81 sq mi) on both banks of the Sava and Una rivers. The largest camp was the "Brickworks" camp at Jasenovac, about 100 km (62 mi) southeast of Zagreb. The overall complex included the Stara Gradiška sub-camp, the killing grounds across the Sava river at Donja Gradina, five work farms, and the Uštica Roma camp.[1]

During and since World War II, there has been much debate and controversy regarding the number of victims killed at the Jasenovac concentration camp complex during its more than three-and-a-half years of operation. After the war, a figure of 700,000 reflected the "conventional wisdom".[9][10][11][12] Since 2002, the Museum of Victims of Genocide in Belgrade has no longer defended the figure of 700,000 to 1 million victims of the camp. In 2005, Dragan Cvetković, a researcher from the Museum, and a Croatian co-author published a book on wartime losses in the NDH which gave a figure of approximately 100,000 victims[clarification needed] of Jasenovac.[13] The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) in Washington, D.C. presently estimates that the Ustaša regime murdered between 77,000 and 99,000 people in Jasenovac between 1941 and 1945.[2]

  1. ^ a b Official website of the Jasenovac Memorial Site
  2. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference ushmm was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ Kolstø 2011, pp. 226–241.
  4. ^ Ljiljana Radonić (2009), Heinz Fassmann; Wolfgang Müller-Funk; Heidemarie Uhl (eds.), "Krieg um die Erinnerung an das KZ Jasenovac: Kroatische Vergangenheitspolitik zwischen Revisionismus und europäischen Standards", Kulturen der Differenz- Transformationsprozesse in Zentraleuropa Nach 1989 (in German), Göttingen: V&R unipress, p. 179
  5. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 399.
  6. ^ Crowe 2013, p. 71.
  7. ^ Freund, Michael (4 May 2016). "Remembering Croatia's 'Auschwitz of the Balkans'". The Jerusalem Post.
  8. ^ Brietman (2005), p. 204
  9. ^ Zečević, Aleksandar (2004). Amendments I to the Charter of the United Nations. p. 169. ISBN 9788690575329.
  10. ^ Bulajić, Milan. Jasenovac-1945-2005/06: 60/61.-godišnjica herojskog proboja zatočenika 22. aprila 1945 : dani sećanja na žrtve genocida nad jermenskim, grčkim, srpskim, jevrejskim i romskim narodima.
  11. ^ Bousfield, Jonathan. Croatia. p. 122.
  12. ^ Geddes, Andrew (2013-05-02). The European Union and South East Europe: The Dynamics of Europeanization and Multilevel Governance. p. 217. ISBN 9781136281570.
  13. ^ Kolstø 2011, pp. 226–41.