High-heeled shoe

High-heeled shoes

High heels are a type of shoe in which the heel is significantly higher off the ground compared to the toes. High, or elevated, heels are anything over 3.5cm.[1] and can be as much as 18cm or more in the case of ballet boots. High heels make the wearer appear taller, accentuate the muscle tone in their legs and make their legs appear visibly longer.[2]

There are many types of high heels, which come in different styles, colors and materials, and can be found all over the world. The first known pictorial evidence of high heels comes from 10th Century Persia where they were worn by men in combination with stirrups for horse riding.[3] Heels have had significant cultural and fashionable meanings attached to them over the past 1,000 years, especially regarding the social construction of gender in the West.[3] Although in the 17th century high heels were the sign of masculine power and social status by the 21st century narrow high heels represented femininity and “erotic capital” although a thick high heel was still acceptable for males in some situations.[3]

Wearing high heels is associated with health risks such as a greater risk of falls in the elderly,[1] musculoskeletal pain,[4] developing foot deformities[4][5] and developing varicose veins.[6]

  1. ^ a b Ravindra S. Goonetilleke (6 November 2012). The Science of Footwear. CRC Press. pp. 542–. ISBN 978-1-4398-3569-2.
  2. ^ Han, Dongwook (2015). "Muscle activation of paraspinal muscles in different types of high heels during standing". Journal of Physical Therapy Science. 27: 67–69. doi:10.1589/jpts.27.67. PMID 25642040.
  3. ^ a b c Andrew Reilly; Ben Barry (24 February 2020). Crossing Gender Boundaries: Fashion to Create, Disrupt and Transcend. Intellect Books. pp. 98–. ISBN 978-1-78938-115-3.
  4. ^ a b Barnish, MS; Barnish, J (13 January 2016). "High-heeled shoes and musculoskeletal injuries: a narrative systematic review". BMJ Open. 6 (1): e010053. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010053. PMC 4735171. PMID 26769789.
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference design was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ Tedeschi Filho, Wagner; Dezzotti, Nei R.A.; Joviliano, Edvaldo E.; Moriya, Takachi; Piccinato, Carlos Eli (October 2012). "Influence of high-heeled shoes on venous function in young women". Journal of Vascular Surgery. 56 (4): 1039–1044. doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2012.01.039.