Bhutan

Coordinates: 27°25′01″N 90°26′06″E / 27.417°N 90.435°E / 27.417; 90.435

Kingdom of Bhutan

  • འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་  (Dzongkha)
  • Druk Gyal Khap
Anthem: Druk tsendhen (Dzongkha)
"The Thunder Dragon Kingdom"
Bhutan (orthographic projection).svg
Capital
and largest city
Thimphu
27°28.0′N 89°38.5′E / 27.4667°N 89.6417°E / 27.4667; 89.6417
Official languagesDzongkha
Religion
74.8% Vajrayana Buddhism (state religion)
22.6% Hinduism
1.9% Bon and other indigenous faith
0.5% Christianity
0.4% Islam
0.2% Other
Demonym(s)Bhutanese
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Druk Gyalpo (monarch)
Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck
Lotay Tshering
LegislatureParliament
National Council
National Assembly
Formation
• Unification of Bhutan
1616–1634
17 December 1907
• Independent from British Raj
15 August 1947
• Independent from India
17 December 1948
8 August 1949
21 September 1971
18 July 2008
Area
• Total
38,394 km2 (14,824 sq mi)[1][2] (133rd)
• Water (%)
1.1
Population
• 2018 estimate
754,388[3][4] (165th)
• 2017 census
727,145[5]
• Density
19.3/km2 (50.0/sq mi) (162nd)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$7.701 billion[6]
• Per capita
$9,426[6] (115th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$2.547 billion[6]
• Per capita
$3,117[6] (130th)
Gini (2017)37.4[7]
medium
HDI (2019)Increase 0.654[8]
medium · 129th
CurrencyNgultrum (BTN)
Time zoneUTC+06 (BTT)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+975
ISO 3166 codeBT
Internet TLD.bt
  1. The population of Bhutan had been estimated based on the reported figure of about 1 million in the 1970s when the country had joined the United Nations and precise statistics were lacking.[9] Thus, using the annual increase rate of 2–3%, the most population estimates were around 2 million in 2000. A national census was carried out in 2005 and it turned out that the population was 672,425. Consequently, United Nations Population Division reduced its estimation of the country's population in the 2006 revision[10] for the whole period from 1950 to 2000.

Bhutan (/bˈtɑːn/ (About this soundlisten); Dzongkha: འབྲུག་ཡུལ་, romanizedDruk Yul, [ʈuk̚˩.yː˩]), officially known as the Kingdom of Bhutan (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་, romanizedDruk Gyal Khap),[11] is a landlocked country in the Eastern Himalayas. It is bordered by China to the north and India to the south. Nepal and Bangladesh are located in proximity to Bhutan but do not share a land border. The country has a population of over 754,000[12] and a territory of 38,394 square kilometers (14,824 sq mi) which ranks 133rd in terms of land area. Bhutan is a constitutional monarchy with Mahayana Buddhism as the state religion.

The subalpine Himalayan mountains in the north rise from the country's lush subtropical plains in the south.[13] In the Bhutanese Himalayas, there are peaks higher than 7,000 meters (23,000 ft) above sea level. Gangkhar Puensum is Bhutan's highest peak and may also be the highest unclimbed mountain in the world.[14] The wildlife of Bhutan is notable for its diversity, including the Himalayan takin. The largest city in Bhutan is the capital Thimphu.

Bhutan and neighboring Tibet experienced the spread of Buddhism which originated in the Indian subcontinent during the lifetime of Gautama Buddha. In the first millennium, the Vajrayana school of Buddhism spread to Bhutan from the southern Pala Empire of Bengal. Tibet, Bhutan, Sikkim and parts of Nepal became the vestiges of the Mahayana schools amid the decline of Buddhism in India. Bhutan also came under the influence of the Tibetan Empire. During the 16th-century, Ngawang Namgyal unified the valleys of Bhutan into a single state. Namgyal defeated three Tibetan invasions, subjugated rival religious schools, codified the Tsa Yig legal system, and established a government of theocratic and civil administrators. Namgyal became the first Zhabdrung Rinpoche and his successors acted as the spiritual leaders of Bhutan like the Dalai Lama in Tibet. During the 17th century, Bhutan controlled large parts of northeast India, Sikkim and Nepal; it also wielded significant influence in Cooch Behar State.[15] Bhutan ceded the Bengal Duars to British India during the Bhutan War in the 19th century. The House of Wangchuck emerged as the monarchy and pursued closer ties with the British in the subcontinent. In 1910, a treaty guaranteed British advice in foreign policy in exchange for internal autonomy in Bhutan. The arrangement continued under a new treaty with India in 1949 in which both countries recognized each other's sovereignty. Bhutan joined the United Nations in 1971. It has since expanded relations with 55 countries, including Bangladesh,[16] Israel,[17] Kuwait,[18] Brazil,[19] Japan,[20] Thailand,[21] and Turkey;[22] as well as the European Union. While dependent on the Indian military, Bhutan maintains its own military units.

The 2008 Constitution establishes a parliamentary government with an elected National Assembly and a National Council. Bhutan is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). In 2020, Bhutan ranked third in South Asia after Sri Lanka and the Maldives in the Human Development Index.[23] Bhutan is also a member of the Climate Vulnerable Forum, the Non-Aligned Movement, BIMSTEC, the IMF, the World Bank, UNESCO and the World Health Organization (WHO). Bhutan ranked first in SAARC in economic freedom, ease of doing business, peace and lack of corruption in 2016. Bhutan has one of the largest water reserves for hydropower in the world.[24][25] Melting glaciers caused by climate change are a growing concern in Bhutan.[26]

  1. ^ "9th Five Year Plan (2002–2007)" (PDF). Royal Government of Bhutan. 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  2. ^ "National Portal of Bhutan". Department of Information Technology, Bhutan. Archived from the original on 23 April 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  3. ^ ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  4. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  5. ^ "Bhutan". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d "Butan". International Monetary Fund.
  7. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  8. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  9. ^ "Treaty Bodies Database – Document – Summary Record – Bhutan". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR). 5 June 2001. Archived from the original on 10 January 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
  10. ^ "World Population Prospects". United Nations. 2008. Archived from the original on 7 January 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
  11. ^ Driem, George van (1998). Dzongkha = Rdoṅ-kha. Leiden: Research School, CNWS. p. 478. ISBN 978-90-5789-002-4.
  12. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". population.un.org. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  13. ^ "Bhutan". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  14. ^ Tsuguyasu Itami (October 2001). "Gankarpunzum & First Ascent Of Liankang Kangri" (PDF). Japanese Alpine News. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  15. ^ Karthikeyan, Ananth (1 October 2017). "The brief supremacy of a mountain kingdom". DNA India.
  16. ^ "Bhutan was first to recognise Bangladesh". The Daily Star. 9 December 2014. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  17. ^ "Israel establishes diplomatic relations with Bhutan". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  18. ^ ""Bhutan and Kuwait have gained the trust and respect of the entire world" – Kuensel Online". kuenselonline.com. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  19. ^ https://www.mfa.gov.bt/?p=244#:~:text=Brazil%20is%20the%20only%20country,Bhutan%20has%20established%20diplomatic%20relations.&text=In%20total%2C%20Bhutan%20now%20has,on%20areas%20of%20mutual%20cooperation.
  20. ^ NEWS, KYODO. "Abe hails Japan's close ties with Bhutan, other royal families". Kyodo News+. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  21. ^ Limited, Bangkok Post Public Company. "King, Queen of Bhutan arrive". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  22. ^ "From Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  23. ^ "Human Development Index: Bangladesh moves 2 notches up, remains 5th in South Asia". Dhaka Tribune. 21 December 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  24. ^ "Bhutan" Check |url= value (help). bhutan. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  25. ^ https://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/sdissues/energy/op/hydro_tsheringbhutan.pdf
  26. ^ "Bhutan | UNDP Climate Change Adaptation". www.adaptation-undp.org. Retrieved 13 April 2021.