Auckland

Auckland

Tāmaki Makaurau (Māori)
Coat of arms of Auckland
Coat of arms
Nicknames: 
City of Sails[1]
Queen City[2]
Auckland is located in New Zealand
Auckland
Auckland
Location in New Zealand
Auckland is located in Oceania
Auckland
Auckland
Location in Oceania
Auckland is located in Pacific Ocean
Auckland
Auckland
Location in the Pacific Ocean
Coordinates: 36°50′26″S 174°44′24″E / 36.84056°S 174.74000°E / -36.84056; 174.74000Coordinates: 36°50′26″S 174°44′24″E / 36.84056°S 174.74000°E / -36.84056; 174.74000
CountryNew Zealand
IslandNorth Island
RegionAuckland
Settled by Māoric. 1350
Settled by Europeans1840
Named forGeorge Eden, Earl of Auckland
NZ Parliament
Local boards
Government
 • BodyAuckland Council
 • MayorPhil Goff
 • MPs
Area
 • Urban607.10 km2 (234.40 sq mi)
Highest elevation
196 m (643 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (June 2020)[4]
 • Urban
1,470,100
 • Urban density2,400/km2 (6,300/sq mi)
 • Regional/metro
1,717,500
 • Demonym
Aucklander
Time zoneUTC+12 (NZST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+13 (NZDT)
Postcode(s)
0600–2699
Area code(s)09
Local iwiNgāti Whātua, Tainui
Websitewww.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz

Auckland (Māori: Tāmaki Makaurau) is a large metropolitan city in the North Island of New Zealand. The most populous urban area in the country, Auckland has an urban population of about 1,470,100 (June 2020).[4] It is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,717,500.[4] While Europeans continue to make up the plurality of Auckland's population, the city became multicultural and cosmopolitan in the late-20th century, with Asians accounting for 31% of the city's population in 2018. Auckland is also home to the largest Polynesian population in the world.[5] The Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki Makaurau, meaning "Tāmaki desired by many", in reference to the desirability of its natural resources and geography.[6]

Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf to the east, then extending in Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, and the Waitākere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west. The surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with 53 dormant volcanic cones. The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitematā Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water.

The isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled c. 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans.[7] After a British colony was established in 1840, William Hobson, then Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose the area as his new capital. He named the area for George Eden, Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. Māori–European conflict over land in the region led to war in the mid-19th century. Auckland was replaced as the capital in 1865 by Wellington, but the city continued to grow, initially because of its port and logging and gold mining in its hinterland, later from pastoral farming (especially dairy farming), and manufacturing in the city itself.[8] It has throughout most of its history been the nation's largest city. Today, Auckland's central business district is New Zealand's leading economic hub.

The University of Auckland, founded in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. The city's varied cultural institutions—such as the Auckland War Memorial Museum, the Museum of Transport and Technology, and Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki—and national historic sites, festivals, performing arts, and sports activities are significant tourist attractions. Architectural landmarks include the Harbour Bridge, the Town Hall, the Ferry Building and the Sky Tower. The city is served by Auckland Airport, which handles around 2 million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world,[9] Auckland is recognised as one of the world's most liveable cities, ranked third in the 2019 Mercer Quality of Living Survey.[10][11]

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference City_of_Sails was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ Rawlings-Way, Charles; Atkinson, Brett (2010). New Zealand (15th ed.). Footscray, Vic.: Lonely Planet. p. 125. ISBN 978-1742203645.
  3. ^ "Population density: are we talking about the same thing?" (PDF). Monitoring Research Quarterly. 4 (1): 4. March 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2014.
  4. ^ a b c "Population estimate tables - NZ.Stat". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  5. ^ "Auckland and around". Rough Guide to New Zealand, Fifth Edition. Archived from the original on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 16 February 2010.
  6. ^ "About Auckland". The Auckland Plan 2050. Archived from the original on 17 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Hochstetter1867 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ Margaret McClure, Auckland region, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/auckland-region
  9. ^ "Auckland among world's most expensive cities". The New Zealand Herald. 31 December 2016. Archived from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  10. ^ "Best UK cities revealed in Mercer's quality of life rankings for 2019". Evening Standard. 13 March 2019. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  11. ^ "Quality of Living City Ranking". Mercer. 2019. Archived from the original on 18 April 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2019.