Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals, which involves consciousness and emotionality. The distinction between the former and the latter categories is often revealed by the acronym chosen. 'Strong' AI is usually labelled as AGI (Artificial General Intelligence) while attempts to emulate 'natural' intelligence have been called ABI (Artificial Biological Intelligence). Leading AI textbooks define the field as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals.[3] Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is often used to describe machines (or computers) that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with the human mind, such as "learning" and "problem solving".[4]

As machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered to require "intelligence" are often removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the AI effect.[5] A quip in Tesler's Theorem says "AI is whatever hasn't been done yet."[6] For instance, optical character recognition is frequently excluded from things considered to be AI,[7] having become a routine technology.[8] Modern machine capabilities generally classified as AI include successfully understanding human speech,[9] competing at the highest level in strategic game systems (such as chess and Go),[10] autonomously operating cars, intelligent routing in content delivery networks, and military simulations.[11]

Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1955, and in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism,[12][13] followed by disappointment and the loss of funding (known as an "AI winter"),[14][15] followed by new approaches, success and renewed funding.[13][16] After AlphaGo successfully defeated a professional Go player in 2015, artificial intelligence once again attracted widespread global attention.[17] For most of its history, AI research has been divided into sub-fields that often fail to communicate with each other.[18] These sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals (e.g. "robotics" or "machine learning"),[19] the use of particular tools ("logic" or artificial neural networks), or deep philosophical differences.[22][23][24] Sub-fields have also been based on social factors (particular institutions or the work of particular researchers).[18]

The traditional problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge representation, planning, learning, natural language processing, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.[19] General intelligence is among the field's long-term goals.[25] Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, and traditional symbolic AI. Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, artificial neural networks, and methods based on statistics, probability and economics. The AI field draws upon computer science, information engineering, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and many other fields.

The field was founded on the assumption that human intelligence "can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it".[26] This raises philosophical arguments about the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence. These issues have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity.[31] Some people also consider AI to be a danger to humanity if it progresses unabated.[32][33] Others believe that AI, unlike previous technological revolutions, will create a risk of mass unemployment.[34]

In the twenty-first century, AI techniques have experienced a resurgence following concurrent advances in computer power, large amounts of data, and theoretical understanding; and AI techniques have become an essential part of the technology industry, helping to solve many challenging problems in computer science, software engineering and operations research.[35][16]

  1. ^ Poole, Mackworth & Goebel 1998, p. 1.
  2. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, p. 55.
  3. ^ Definition of AI as the study of intelligent agents:
  4. ^ Russell & Norvig 2009, p. 2.
  5. ^ McCorduck 2004, p. 204
  6. ^ Maloof, Mark. "Artificial Intelligence: An Introduction, p. 37" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 August 2018.
  7. ^ "How AI Is Getting Groundbreaking Changes In Talent Management And HR Tech". Hackernoon. Archived from the original on 11 September 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
  8. ^ Schank, Roger C. (1991). "Where's the AI". AI magazine. Vol. 12 no. 4. p. 38.
  9. ^ Russell & Norvig 2009.
  10. ^ Cite error: The named reference bbc-alphago was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  11. ^ Allen, Gregory (April 2020). "Department of Defense Joint AI Center - Understanding AI Technology" (PDF). - The official site of the Department of Defense Joint Artificial Intelligence Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 April 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Optimism of early AI was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference AI in the 80s was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ Cite error: The named reference First AI winter was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  15. ^ Cite error: The named reference Second AI winter was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  16. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference AI in 2000s was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  17. ^ Haenlein, Michael; Kaplan, Andreas (2019). "A Brief History of Artificial Intelligence: On the Past, Present, and Future of Artificial Intelligence". California Management Review. 61 (4): 5–14. doi:10.1177/0008125619864925. ISSN 0008-1256. S2CID 199866730.
  18. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Fragmentation of AI was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  19. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Problems of AI was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  20. ^ Kolata 1982.
  21. ^ Maker 2006.
  22. ^ Biological intelligence vs. intelligence in general:
    • Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 2–3, who make the analogy with aeronautical engineering.
    • McCorduck 2004, pp. 100–101, who writes that there are "two major branches of artificial intelligence: one aimed at producing intelligent behavior regardless of how it was accomplished, and the other aimed at modeling intelligent processes found in nature, particularly human ones."
    • Kolata 1982, a paper in Science, which describes McCarthy's indifference to biological models. Kolata quotes McCarthy as writing: "This is AI, so we don't care if it's psychologically real".[20] McCarthy recently reiterated his position at the [email protected] conference where he said "Artificial intelligence is not, by definition, simulation of human intelligence".[21]
  23. ^ Cite error: The named reference Neats vs. scruffies was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  24. ^ Cite error: The named reference Symbolic vs. sub-symbolic was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  25. ^ Cite error: The named reference General intelligence was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  26. ^ See the Dartmouth proposal, under Philosophy, below.
  27. ^ McCorduck 2004, p. 34.
  28. ^ McCorduck 2004, p. xviii.
  29. ^ McCorduck 2004, p. 3.
  30. ^ McCorduck 2004, pp. 340–400.
  31. ^ This is a central idea of Pamela McCorduck's Machines Who Think. She writes:
    • "I like to think of artificial intelligence as the scientific apotheosis of a venerable cultural tradition."[27]
    • "Artificial intelligence in one form or another is an idea that has pervaded Western intellectual history, a dream in urgent need of being realized."[28]
    • "Our history is full of attempts—nutty, eerie, comical, earnest, legendary and real—to make artificial intelligences, to reproduce what is the essential us—bypassing the ordinary means. Back and forth between myth and reality, our imaginations supplying what our workshops couldn't, we have engaged for a long time in this odd form of self-reproduction."[29]
    She traces the desire back to its Hellenistic roots and calls it the urge to "forge the Gods."[30]
  32. ^ "Stephen Hawking believes AI could be mankind's last accomplishment". BetaNews. 21 October 2016. Archived from the original on 28 August 2017.
  33. ^ Lombardo P, Boehm I, Nairz K (2020). "RadioComics – Santa Claus and the future of radiology". Eur J Radiol. 122 (1): 108771. doi:10.1016/j.ejrad.2019.108771. PMID 31835078.
  34. ^ Cite error: The named reference guardian jobs debate was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  35. ^ Cite error: The named reference AI widely used was invoked but never defined (see the help page).