Republic of Albania

Republika e Shqipërisë  (Albanian)
Motto: Ti Shqipëri, më jep nder,
më jep emrin Shqipëtar

You Albania, give me honour,
you give me the name Albanian
Anthem: Himni i Flamurit
("Hymn to the Flag")
Albania (orthographic projection).svg
and largest city
41°19′N 19°49′E / 41.317°N 19.817°E / 41.317; 19.817
Official languagesAlbanian
Recognised minority languages
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Ilir Meta
Edi Rama
Establishment history
February 1272
2 March 1444
• Proclamation of independence from the Ottoman Empire
28 November 1912
29 July 1913
31 January 1925
1 September 1928
11 January 1946
28 December 1976
• 4th Republic of Albania
Current constitution
29 April 1991

28 November 1998
• Total
28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi) (140th)
• Water (%)
• January 2020 estimate
Increase 2,845,955[1]
• 2011 census
• Density
98/km2 (253.8/sq mi) (63rd)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
$42.594 billion[3]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
$16.753 billion[3]
• Per capita
Gini (2017)Positive decrease 33.2[4]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.795[5]
high · 69th
CurrencyLek (ALL)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+355
ISO 3166 codeAL

Albania (/ælˈbniə, ɔːl-/ (About this soundlisten) a(w)l-BAY-nee-ə; Albanian: Shqipëri or Shqipëria),[a] officially the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Republika e Shqipërisë),[b] is a country in Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediterranean Sea, and shares land borders with Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo[c] to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east, Greece to the south; and maritime borders with Greece, Montenegro and Italy to the west. Tirana is its capital and largest city, followed by Durrës, Vlorë and Shkodër.

Geographically, Albania displays varied climatic, geological, hydrological, and morphological conditions, defined in an area of 28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi). It possesses significant diversity with the landscape ranging from the snow-capped mountains in the Albanian Alps as well as the Korab, Skanderbeg, Pindus and Ceraunian Mountains to the hot and sunny coasts of the Albanian Adriatic and Ionian Sea along the Mediterranean Sea.

Historically, Albania has been inhabited by numerous civilisations such as the Illyrians, Thracians, Ancient Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Venetians and Ottomans. The Albanians established the autonomous Principality of Arbër in the 12th century. The Kingdom of Albania and Principality of Albania formed between the 13th and 14th centuries. Prior to the Ottoman conquest of Albania in the 15th century, the Albanian resistance to Ottoman expansion into Europe led by Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg won them acclaim over most of Europe. Between the 18th and 19th centuries, cultural developments, widely attributed to Albanians having gathered both spiritual and intellectual strength, conclusively led to the Albanian Renaissance. After the defeat of the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars, the modern nation state of Albania declared independence in 1912.[7] In the 20th century, the Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy which formed Greater Albania before becoming a protectorate of Nazi Germany.[8] Enver Hoxha formed the People's Socialist Republic of Albania after World War II, modeled under the terms of Hoxhaism. The Revolutions of 1991 concluded the fall of communism in Albania and eventually the establishment of the current Republic of Albania.

Politically, Albania is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic and a developing country with an upper-middle income economy dominated by the service sector, followed by manufacturing.[9] It went through a process of transition following the end of communism in 1990, from centralized planning to a market-based economy.[10][11][12] Albania provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens.[5] Albania is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, UNESCO, NATO, WTO, COE, OSCE, and OIC. It is an official candidate for membership in the European Union.[13] It is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, including the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and Union for the Mediterranean.

  1. ^ "Popullsia e Shqipërisë" (PDF) (in Albanian). Instituti i Statistikës (INSTAT). 26 March 2020. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 July 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  2. ^ "Population and Housing Census 2011" (PDF). Instituti i Statistikës (INSTAT). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 August 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  4. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)–Albania". World Bank. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  5. ^ a b Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  6. ^ Giacomo Jungg (1 January 1895). Fialuur i voghel scc...p e ltinisct mle...un prei P. Jak Junkut t' Scocniis ... N'Sckoder t' Scc...pniis. Retrieved 23 July 2016 – via Internet Archive.
  7. ^ "Albania". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
  8. ^ Zolo, D. (27 August 2002). Invoking Humanity: War, Law and Global Order. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 180. ISBN 9780826456564.
  9. ^ "Albania". The World Bank. Archived from the original on 21 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
  10. ^ Reports: Poverty Decreases in Albania After Years of Growth. Dow Jones Newswires, 201-938-5500 201-938-5500
  11. ^ Albania plans to build three hydropower plants. People's Daily
  12. ^ Strong GDP growth reduces poverty in Albania-study. Archived 17 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "Albania applies for EU membership". BBC News. 28 April 2009. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2009.

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